Vulnerability Assessment



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Vulnerability Assessment

Leland D. Vaughn

CJMS 630.9041

Turnitin 14%


Vulnerability assessment involves a systematic approach that is used to assess a facility’s security system and analyze its effectiveness. It involves assessing the suitability of certain basic aspects in the security system that includes the type of assets to be protected by the facility security program. This paper aims at developing a vulnerability assessment tool to be used to conduct a survey of a home. In order to develop a vulnerability assessment of a home, it is important to examine the physical characteristics of the house, accessibility by the outsiders, geographic location, illumination levels, location of assets within the house as well as the strength of which access measures can be assessed. It is also important to consider the technical measures, which include equipment properties, weakness of networks within the home, susceptibility to other eavesdropping from other electronic surveillances. (Bankoff, 2004) Moreover, it is important to consider the effectiveness of the locks in the house, and the types and number of cameras that have been placed in and outside the house. (Mumtaz, et al, 2011) There are also operational vulnerabilities that govern homes. These include the policies, practices, procedures, behaviors as well as personal actions of those living in the home. These rules must be observed in the development and maintenance of a residence.

Assessing security vulnerability is vital for a home because it enables one to analyze the security weaknesses and opportunities unidentified that can be used to execute adversarial activities. Therefore, a security survey of a home will involve collecting information about that particular home. (Lerche et al., 2006) A security suvey will also make it possible to identify and block the opportunities for any attacks of assets within the home. Therefore, a security survey enables primary decision makers to mitigate threats and reduce risks.

Site Selection and the Rationale for the Site Selected.

A home is usually a place of residence for any individual. Everyone has a home although the size and the type may differ. A home is normally for family to live there as well as store properties that can be used by the family. Sometimes, just placing a perimeter fence is not enough for ensuring an effective security. In major residential places such it is important to consider the security system, as this is a priority to ensure the assets within the house are safe and secure all the time. A home is vulnerable to various threats that range from attacks, the geographical location of the home in consideration with the security level of the area and how vulnerable one considers himself to be. (Bankoff, 2004) Therefore, the location of a home whether in urban or rural areas will determine the security level needed to ensure the occupants and properties are safe. (Lerche et al., 2006) Therefore, the security level is upgraded where there is a need. For example, whether there is high level of vulnerability, it is important to place inside and outside cameras to make sure that one can monitor what is going on outside the house as well as in every room within the building. (Mumtaz, et al, 2011) The home’s additional security measures will be required to increase level of security measures. Moreover, it is also important to consider the changes in policies and procedures governing houses in that particular location. This is because failure to comply with these policies may give room for an attack to occur. (Ball, 2003) For example, when power has been cut, one may be vulnerable to attacks simply because cameras are not working, making it impossible to monitor the activities taking place within the home.

The choice of home is crucial because several attacks have occurred in residential areas simply because they left a gap that was used to carry out the attack. Some people, do not think it’s necessary to improve the security system of a home until an attack occurs, then they realize that there is an acute need to check on the security system for the safety of the family and property. (Mumtaz, et al, 2011) Vulnerability assessment of a home may reveal gap in security and therefore come up with measures to come up with effective measures to block such gaps. Security weaknesses may also be identified through the survey.

Components of the Vulnerability Assessment

The major components of vulnerability assessment include the following: the basic process of a vulnerability assessment, the type of assets that need to be protected by the program, the protection measures that are already in place and lastly the gaps identified in the security system. In short, these components of a vulnerability assessment make it possible to identify the need involved in upgrading the security system of a facility. (Ball, 2003) The assessment makes it possible to identify the weaknesses and come up with solutions to block the gaps identified. It also helps to determine whether there is a need to put in place additional security measures and equipment. (Birkmann, 2006) Depending on the location of the home, vulnerability assessment will come up with an extensive survey of what needs to be done in order to improve the security system.

In fact, the main goal of a security assessment is to ensure that there is life safety and protection of assets as well as promoting the continuity of operations within the home. (Bankoff, 2004) There are various driving forces behind the components of vulnerability assessment which includes the following: new legislations and revised threat assessments which may uncover new or emerging threats. (O’Brien, 2002) Through this assessment, the security decision makers and facility managers are able to come up with future plans and methodologies to deal with the threats. It also makes it possible to budget for the expenditures needed to improve the security system, allocation of personnel as well as other procedural guidelines. Thus, a survey on vulnerability of a facility makes it possible to analyze the potential weaknesses of the security system that can deter the operations and procedures within the building.

Suggestions and recommendations of security counter-measures to mitigate and reduce the risk of identified vulnerabilities to an acceptable level

Some of the recommendations of security counter measures that can be used to mitigate and reduce risks in a home include the following; firstly, the use of CCTV cameras is a major step that can be used to increase the level of security within any building. CCTV cameras are normally connected with computers where someone can be checking the flow of activities within and outside the building. (Bankoff, 2004) The cameras keep the building secure all the time, just in case any suspicious activity takes place. An alert is always raised and the attack is averted. Secondly, a direct communication with the security force should be developed. After an attack has been identified, the next step involves alerting the security forces that will have the capacity to counter the attack. (Lerche et al., 2006) Thus, an effective communication system should be developed and a surety that security forces can arrive at the scene as quickly as possible. The security system aims at deterring, detecting and delaying the attack before it takes place. Therefore, if an attack is detected and no response is coming through, it is likely to be more damaging.

A working electrified perimeter fence also plays an important role in preventing any attack from occurring. A fence will keep people away with malicious thoughts, as they will find it hard to enter into the building. However, it is important to note the gate should have security guard who is thoroughly checking the visitors in and outside the building. In short, all the security measures put in place should be working and in good condition to enable the condition of activities with the building for security purposes. However, it is important to note that security measures do not only involve physical attacks, but can also range from network weakness, lack of compliance with policies and regulations among others. Thus, it is recommended that those involved should ensure that they comply with all the requirements to guarantee that all are safe and secure.


Bankoff, G. (2004). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. London: Earth scan.

Birkmann, J.(2006). Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. UNU Press.

Ball, R. (2003). The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition.AIAA Education Series. pp. 603

Mumtaz, M.; Hansen, Hugh; Pohl, Hana R. (2011).”Chapter 3.Mixtures and Their Risk Assessment in Toxicology”. In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel, Roland K O Sigel. Metal Ions in Toxicology.RSC Publishing. pp. 61–80

Lerche, Ian; Glaesser, Walter (2006), Environmental risk assessment : quantitative measures, anthropogenic influences, human impact., Berlin: Springer, retrieved 27 September 2010

O’Brien, M. (2002), Making better environmental decisions: an alternative to risk assessment, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press,


Birkmann, J. (2006). Appendix A.Measuring Vulnerability: Risk Assessment. Resilient Societies.UNU Press.

Appendix A

AssetsThreatsVulnerabilitiesRisk Assessment
TelevisionsIntrudersOut dated security SystemCost Benefit Analysis
JewelryFloodingCracks in foundation
RecordsFiresSmoke Detectors
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