A traditional approach to child development study has been to emphasis “Normative Measure”. This is concerned with studying milestones or stages in a child’s development and show what most children can do at a particular age. In reality there is a wide range of normal development and this will be influenced by genetic, social, and cultural factors, so it is important to be aware that normative measures can only indicate general trends in children s development.
Physical development By 6 months a child will: 0 Turn their head toward sounds and movement 0 Watch an adult’s face when feeding Smile at familiar faces and voices 0 Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs 0 Look and reach for objects 0 Hold and shake a rattle 0 put everything in their mouths Between 6 months and 1 year: 0 Move from sitting with support to sitting alone 0 Roll over from their tummy to their back 0 Begin to creep, crawl or shuffle on their bottom 0 Pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position Raises arms to be lifted Turn and look up when they hear their name Pat and poke objects when playing Pass objects from hand to hand Look for things that have been hidden or dropped Reaches hand towards source of food Between one and two years: Begin to walk Sits alone indefinitely feed themselves Push and pull toys while walking 0 Wave goodbye Point or make noises to indicate wants Enjoy a picture book u snake nana Tort ‘No’ Uses thumb and first two fingers to grip Bangs objects together Crawl upstairs stoops to pick things up from the floor Begins to show preference for one hand Builds tower of few bricks Holds crayon in palm and makes marks on paper Between two and three years: Kneels to play Throws Kicks ball Builds larger brick tower Pour liquids Uses pencil to make marks and circular scribbles
Three years: Jumps with feet together walks on tip toes Walks up and down stairs catches a gently thrown ball Climbs with increasing confidence Paints Threads beads on a lace Gains control over eating tools Four years: 0 Pedals 0 Throws with aim 0 Uses scissors 0 Holds a pencil and can draw people/houses Five years: Hops Kicks with aim Catches ball Handles pencil Walt control 0 Copy shapes and write some letters 0 Sews stitches Six to seven: Skips Rides bicycle Jumps from height Climbs confidently Writes Threads needle can do buttons, shoe laces Seven to twelve: 0 Run, Jump, skip, hit a ball, climb and swing Enjoy playing team games by age eight 0 May misjudge their ability before age nine Twelve to nineteen Young people will see many physical developments changing the appearance of their bodies. Everyone’s rate of growth is different.
During adolescence, coordination and strength increase greatly and by age 19 or 20 the adolescent has full adult motor capacities Adolescence for boys usually begins later than for girls and usually occurs around fourteen years of age. However, at the end of this growth period, boys are usually bigger than girls. Boys at this age are beginning to develop sex characteristics such s deep voices and body hair and also experience muscle growth and start to take on a manly physique. Testicle and scrotum growth begins in early to mid-puberty. Penis growth starts a bit later but continues for a longer period. Girls Girl’s breasts gradually begin to swell. Her pubic hair will begin to grow, darken and become curlier.
Their bodies become more rounded, developing the curves of womanhood. By 13, some girls are almost physically mature, but there are wide variations in the ages when puberty begins and ends. A few girls may begin to develop as early as 8 and others may show no obvious changes until late teens. The average age of the onset of menstruation is around 13. Some girls have reached full physical maturity by the age of 14 or 15 and some are only beginning the process Depending on the age of pubertal onset, the teenage girl may be almost physically mature at 15 and is likely to be close to her full adult nee gnu seen may nave a woman’s Tuttle, although n near Treats become fuller.
Social and emotional development Newborn to months: 0 Responds to adults especially mothers face and voice 0 Smiles, concentrates on adults face during feeding Ana Nils may still 0 Very dependent on adults for reassurance and comfort, quietest when held and cuddled Enjoys Company of others and games like peek-a-boo 0 Shows affection to known career, but shy with strangers Between one year and two years: 0 likes to please adults and to perform for an audience 0 May become anxious or distressed if separated from known adults 0 May use comfort object 0 Mostly cooperative and can be distracted from unwanted behavior 0 Plays alongside other children 0 Developing sense of own identity, wanting to do things for self 0 demanding of adult attention, Jealous of attention given to others, reluctant to share playthings or adults attention 0 Acts impulsively, requiring needs to be met instantly, prone to rusts of emotion tantrums 0 Enjoys playing with adult or older child who will give attention, beginning to play with others of own age for short periods Three to four years: 0 becoming more independent and self motivated 0 feels more secure and able to cope with unfamiliar surroundings and adults for periods of time 0 becoming more cooperative with adults and likes to help Sociable and friendly with others, plays with children and more able to share 0 beginning to consider the needs of others and to show concern for others Four to seven years: 0 Makes friends but may need help in resolving disputes U developing unreasoning AT rules, Outs II t I Tints turn helping others and taking responsibility -taking 01 t u Enjoys 0 Learns lots about the world and how it works, and about people and relationships 0 Makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games 0 Needs structure and a routine to feel safe 0 Being able to sympathies and empathic makes this age an important time for moral development.
Seven to Twelve years: 0 becoming less dependent on close adults for support – able to cope with wider environment 0 Enjoys being in groups of other children of similar age, strongly influenced by peer group 0 becoming more aware of own gender Developing understanding that certain kinds of behavior are not acceptable and why and a strong sense of fairness and Justice 0 Want to fit in with peer group rules 0 Start to form closer friendships at about eight years old 0 like to play with same- sex friends 0 Need adult help to sort out arguments and disagreements in play Ocean be arrogant and bossy or shy and uncertain Twelve to Nineteen: The teenager may become self-conscious as changes in their body shape take place, dour occurs and possibly acne develops as a result of oilier skin. So, more than anything, they need reassurance. Emotional maturity is constantly shifting, moving them between childish needs and adult desires. They aren’t Just being awkward for the sake of it. Their bodies and emotions are experiencing drastic changes.
The teenager is preparing for independence and beginning the move away from parents and close careers towards their peers. They become less concerned about adult approval and turn instead to their friends. Many teens develop very close friendships within their own gender. Most also develop an intense interest in the opposite sex. They see security in group-acceptance and follow peer group dress and behavior codes. Having the same ‘labels’, collecting the same items and playing the same computer game etc. Are very important. Taken out of the emotional security provided by family, they are subject to all the whims of their peers, including potential rejection.
Language development Between O and One year: 0 makes a variety of “happy’ sounds 0 will respond to variety music and other sounds Beadles watch movements tenet careers race especially teen mouth n Ana try to copy Its Babbling sounds begin 0 Baby will make four or five different sounds and will turn its head towards the source of sounds 0 will show feelings by squealing with pleasure or crying 0 Laugh and chuckle to show enjoyment 0 Move from using single words to putting them together as a phrase 0 a child will understand key words in the sentences used 0 In the second year children start to understand the use of conversation and begin to copy careers 0 Children’s understanding outstrips their ability to express themselves 0 by two they could be using anything from 30 to 150 words 0 Put words together into a sentence 0 Begin to ask questions what? Why?
Etc 0 Can Join in well know songs or verses and put actions to words They could be using several hundred words by their 3rd birthday 0 Can scribble and make marks n paper with a crayon 0 Start to use pitch and tone 0 May start to use the past tense 0 Vocabulary extends towards 1000-1500 words 0 Marks made with crayons become more controlled Four to five years: 0 Grammar is becoming more accurate 0 Children’s questions become more complex 0 More able to use language to communicate their own ideas 0 Understand that books are a source of pleasure and use pictures to help them follow the story 0 May begin to recognize their own name and a few frequently seen written words 0 They can hold a pencil steadily and copy shapes and form some lettering Five to seven years: Fluent speaker able to make up stories can Enola Dodos well 0 Understand that text carries meaning 0 Recognize an increasing number of letters linking them to sounds 0 Will need help in tackling the complexities of spelling 0 Vocabulary will grow if adults introduce new words and new ways of using language 0 Speak fluently and describe complicated happenings 0 Read out loud 0 Know the different tenses and grammar Twelve to Nineteen years: A teenager’s constant sarcasm and supposed witticisms can become irritating, but they are Just testing their new, sophisticated language skills. They may also develop n interest in satire and other slightly off-beat forms of humor.
Their logical thinking ability is also maturing and they may enjoy practicing their new intellectual and verbal skills through debating, either formally or informally Cognitive Development Between O and 3 years: 0 Beginning to realist others are separate beings from themselves 0 Imitates others and tries out ways of behaving in play 0 Becoming more confident but still needs adult reassurance 0 Learns through senses 0 Likes to repeat same behavior Three to four-years: 0 Understand two or three simple things to do at once, e. G. ‘Fetch a glass of water, vive it to your brother and take the empty glass back to the kitchen’ 0 Sort objects by size, and type, e. G. Animals, or by color or shape 0 Begin to understand about sameness and difference in various aspects of life 0 They begin to understand that differences can exist side by side 0 They can begin to see different perspectives on the same subject, for example the same amount of water can look different in different containers seven to levee years: 0 Will read to themselves 0 Will take a lively interest in certain subjects by nine This is a time of maturing of the mind and behaviors as young people develop more accessibility for their thoughts, words and actions and start to think ahead to future occupations, marrying, and having children of their own. During adolescence, the primary tools for knowledge acquisition are the ability to make connections between different pieces of knowledge and being able to make connections with the world as they see it. The pace of development is dependent on how much guidance is given with regard to helping the brain to make the connections between knowledge and practical application in daily life. The more support they receive the faster their pace of growth will be.
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