Types Of Language Learning Strategies Education Essay

Chapter 4
This chapter focuses on the findings obtained from the information collected through the study. Respondents of the study were the ADFP and ACTP pupils of the American Degree Programme in INTEC, UiTM Shah Alam. The informations collected were analyzed utilizing the SPSS package bundle version 16.0. The findings are presented based on the research inquiries in chapter 1:

What are the acquisition schemes used by the respondents?
What is the degree of college self-efficacy among the respondents?
What is the degree of academic accomplishment among the respondents?
What is the relationship between larning schemes and self efficaciousness on
academic accomplishment?
What is the part of each discrepancy of independent variable towards
academic accomplishment?
Table 4.1
Demographic Background of respondents harmonizing to gender and
ethnicity ( n=285 )
Respondents Profile Frequency ( n ) Percentage ( % )
Male 162 56.8
Female 123 43.2
Malay 138 48.4
Chinese 91 31.9
Indian 31 10.9
Others 25 8.8
Entire 285 100
Table 4.1 presents the demographic information of the respondents involved in this survey. More male pupils participated in the survey with a per centum of 56.8 % compared to 43.2 % who were female pupils. On another class of ethnicity, Malay pupils were the chief respondents in this survey with a per centum of 48.4 % while Chinese pupils comprised about 31.9 % of the entire sample. Another 10.9 % of the respondents are of Indian ethnicity while the concluding 8.8 % are of other ethnics.
Table 4.2
Descriptive Analysis of Types of Language Learning Schemes
Types of Language Learning Mean Std. Deviation
Memory Schemes 2.8612 0.5866
Cognitive Schemes 3.4639 0.4853
Compensation Strategies 3.4515 0.6241
Metacognitive Schemes 3.5789 0.6301
Affectional Schemes 2.8117 0.6833
Social Strategies 3.6439 0.6924
Table 4.2 presents the informations on the types of linguistic communication acquisition schemes used by the respondents. The findings show that most respondents use Social Schemes ( M= 3.6439, SD= 0.692411 ) followed by Metacognitive Strategies ( M= 3.5789, SD= 0.63011 ) and eventually Cognitive Schemes ( M= 3.4639, SD= 0.48529 ) .
From the findings, it can be inferred that the respondents benefit the most from utilizing societal schemes, metacognitive schemes and cognitive schemes in their procedure of linguistic communication acquisition. This means that in footings of utilizing societal schemes, the respondents learn linguistic communication best through inquiring inquiries in category, collaborating with others who are adept in the linguistic communication and sympathizing with others for illustration, through developing cultural apprehension. In other words, these respondents learn best when socialising with others in the mark linguistic communication.
The findings besides revealed that the respondents who uses metacognitive schemes. This means that respondents using metacognitive schemes tend to focus on their acquisition for illustration associating new cognition with what they already know, set uping and be aftering their acquisition and ego measuring themselves in their acquisition advancement. In short, these scholars plan out their learning advancement and associate their new cognition to old schemes.
Respondents practising cognitive schemes in larning the mark linguistic communication tend to utilize patterns for illustration utilizing expressions and forms or concentrate on the chief thought of a message when reading a text. These scholars are besides prone to make a batch of analysis and do logical thinking for illustration by analysing looks and eventually create construction in footings of either having input or end product for illustration taking notes.
Table 4.3
Descriptive Analysis of Domains of College Self Efficacy
Spheres of Mean Std. Deviation
College Self Efficacy
Course Self Efficacy 6.9464 1.3234
Roommate Self Efficacy 7.6044 1.2662
Social Self Efficacy 6.8097 1.3726
The findings in table 4.3 shows that respondents have high ego efficaciousness when covering with roomie ego efficaciousness ( M= 7.6044, SD= 1.2662 ) followed by class ego efficaciousness ( M= 6.9464, SD= 1.3234 ) and societal ego efficaciousness ( M= 6.8097, SD= 1.3726 ) . The findings indicate that the respondents are more confident in tie ining with their roomies and finishing undertaking related to their surveies. However societal wise, the findings shows that the respondents are less confident about themselves socialising in major module events or in their interpersonal accomplishments with others such as doing new friends.
Table 4.4
Distribution and Percentage of Respondents ‘ Cumulative Grade Point Average ( CGPA )
Accumulative Grade Frequency ( N ) Percent ( % )
Point Average ( CGPA )
Low ( & A ; lt ; 2.49 ) 2 7
Moderate ( 2.50 – 3.49 ) 217 76.1
High ( 3.50 – 4.00 ) 66 23.2
Entire 285 100
Table 4.4 studies on the degree of academic accomplishment of the respondents. From the information, it shows that a bulk of the respondents have mean academic accomplishment with a per centum of 76.1 % runing from 2.50 – 3.49. 23.2 % of respondents have high CCPA runing from 3.50 – 4.00. The staying 7 % have low academic accomplishment runing from less than 2.49. This findings show that the bulk of respondents from the American Degree Programme have moderate scope of CGPA.
Table 4.5
Correlation Matrix between Types of Language Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement
Language Learning Schemes
Memory Schemes -0.236**
Cognitive Schemes 0.098
Compensation Schemes 0.082
Metacognitive Schemes 0.092
Affectional Schemes -0.324**
Social Strategies 0.130*
** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .
* . Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed ) .
Table 4.5 shows the relationship of linguistic communication larning schemes on academic accomplishment. By utilizing Pearson Correlation to find strength of the relationship between the independent variables and academic accomplishment, it was found there are three schemes that show correlativity with academic accomplishment which are associated with academic accomplishment. Those linguistic communication larning schemes are Memory Strategies, Affective Strategies and Social Strategies.
The relationship between Memory Strategies, Affective Strategies and academic accomplishment shows a negative and really weak relationship with their R and P values ( r= -0.236 p= 0.000, r= -0.324 p= 0.000 ) severally. This suggests that the more the respondents use both Memory and Affective Strategies in their linguistic communication acquisition, the lower their academic accomplishment would be. On another note, Social Strategies indicate a positive but really weak correlativity with respondents ‘ academic accomplishment with its R and P value at r= 0.130, p= 0.029. This suggests that the more respondents use Social Schemes in their linguistic communication acquisition, the better they perform academically.
Table 4.6
Correlation Matrix between Domains of College Self Efficacy on Academic Achievement
College Self-Efficacy
Course Self Efficacy 0.226**
Roommate Self Efficacy -0.031
Social Self Efficacy 0.151*
** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .
* . Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed ) .
Table 4.6 studies on the correlativity on spheres of college egos efficaciousness with respondents ‘ academic accomplishment. Both Course Self Efficacy and Social Self Efficacy show that there is a positive yet weak and really weak relationship between the two variables on academic accomplishment with their R and P values ( r= 0.226 p= 0.000, r= 0.151 p= 0.011 ) severally. This consequence suggests that similar of Social Strategies bespeaking that the higher the respondents ‘ ego efficaciousness in footings of Course and Social, the better the respondents would execute academically.
Table 4.7
An analysis of Multiple Regression on Academic Achievement
To find the part of each independent variable towards academic accomplishment, the ENTER method of multiple arrested development analysis was employed. To place the forecasters of academic accomplishment, the subscales from each spheres ‘ multiple additive arrested development was proposed. The nine subscale forecasters are Memory Strategies ( x1 ) , Cognitive Strategies ( x2 ) , Compensation Strategies ( x3 ) , Metacognitive Strategies ( x4 ) , Affectional Strategies ( x5 ) , Social Strategies ( x6 ) , Course Self Efficacy ( x7 ) , Roommate Self Efficacy ( x8 ) and Social Self Efficacy ( x9 ) . The equation of the proposed multiple additive arrested development theoretical account are as follows ( equation 1 ) :
b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x3 + b4x4 + b5x5 + b6x6 + b7x7 + b8x8 + b9x9 + vitamin E
Equation 1
b0 = Intercept
b1-4 = Slopes ( Estimates of Coefficients )
Y1 = Academic Achievement
x1 = Memory Strategies
x2 = Cognitive Schemes
x3 = Compensation Schemes
x4 = Metacognitive Schemes
x5 = Affective Schemes
x6 = Social Schemes
x7 = Course Self Efficacy
x8 = Roommate Self Efficacy
x9 = Social Self Efficacy
vitamin E = Random Error
Variables Un-Standard Standard T Sig. ( P )
Coefficients Coefficients
i??iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ iˆ i??iˆ
( Constant ) 3.105 17.655 0.000
Memory -0.153 -0.270 -4.354 0.000
Cognitive 0.049 0.071 1.001 0.318
Compensation 0.021 0.040 0.730 0.466
Metacognitive 0.058 0.111 1.589 0.113
Affectional -0.159 -0.328 -5.609 0.000
Social 0.063 0.132 2.080 0.038
Course Self 0.059 0.237 3.806 0.000
Roommate Self -0.027 -0.102 -1.697 0.091
Social Self 0.016 0.066 0.998 0.319
F Statistic = 11.191
Adjusted R-squared = 0.244
R2 = 0.268
Based on the ENTER method which is presented in Table 4.7, the consequences show that there are two forecaster variables that were found important towards academic accomplishment. The two forecasters are Affectional Strategies ( x5 ) and Course Self Efficacy ( x7 ) with their T and P values severally ( t= -5.609 p= 0.000, t= 3.806 p= 0.000 ) . In order to seek the comparative importance of both forecasters in foretelling academic accomplishment, the standardised arrested development between coefficients were besides shown in Table 4.7. Standardized coefficients play an of import function for comparative intents as the values of the different variables have been converted to the same graduated table.
In this multiple arrested development, both dependent and independent variables were standardized to hold a mean of 0 and a standard divergence of 1. Therefore, when an independent variable gives a high beta coefficient, there is an indicant that the variable is extremely of import in lending to the anticipation of the standard variable. Hence, based on the values reported in the tabular array, the highest beta coefficient was derived from Affective Strategies with a value of -0.328. This indicates that Affective Strategies was the strongest subscriber to the overall equation. This variable was followed by Course Self Efficacy with a beta coefficient of 0.237.
To reason, the multiple arrested development theoretical account for academic accomplishment in standard mark units is presented as followers:
3.105 + 0.159×5 + 0.059×7 + vitamin E
Equation 2
Y1 = Academic Accomplishments
x5 = Affective Schemes
x7 = Course Self Efficacy
vitamin E = Random Error
Table 4.7 besides shows the coefficient of finding where R-squared, is the value that indicates the per centum of the entire fluctuation of dependent variables that are explained by the independent variable. Therefore, as presented in Table 4.7, the entire sum of discrepancy of standard variable that is predictable from the two forecasters are 26.8 % , and the adjusted R-square alteration of 24.4 % .
The adjusted R-square gives a better appraisal of the true population value, therefore the part of the forecaster variables towards the discrepancy in the standard variable in this survey are reported based on the adjusted R-square value. Therefore, the overall arrested development theoretical account has been successful in explicating about 24.4 % of the adjusted discrepancy in academic accomplishments.
In short, merely two variables were found to be significantly linked to academic accomplishments at a important degree of 0.05. Those two variables are as reported which are Affectional Schemes and Course Self Efficacy. Both Affective Strategies and Course Self Efficacy were found to hold a important relationship with academic accomplishment. Therefore based on the multiple arrested development analysis, the consequences show that Affective Strategies and Course Self Efficacy history for 24.4 % which explains the discrepancy of academic accomplishment.

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