Today, the universe is confronting monolithic environmental challenges. Global heating and clime alteration, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, dirt eroding, and air and H2O pollution are planetary jobs with wide-ranging impacts on human populations. In add-on to environmental jobs, there are besides serious security issues associated with the large-scale usage of dodo and atomic fuels. Tensions arise from depletion of planetary dodo fuel resources,4 uncertainnesss in energy monetary values and energy availability,5 geopolitical tenseness caused by the concentration of oil and gas resources in a few parts of the universes and the hazard of atomic proliferation endangering planetary security.6 Political force per unit areas environing fossil fuels can take to unrest, government alterations, and even war.
These state of affairss can take to extreme societal hardships.7 Therefore, increasing energy security hazards are a turning concern for developed and developing states likewise. Energy security has, hence, returned to the top of the international docket like in the 1970s8 and now is considered one of the most of import challenges to the universe s peace and security.
The conventional energy paradigm is clearly incapable of work outing these important political and societal jobs. This state of affairs has called for a paradigm displacement in energy policy. As a affair of fact, a paradigm displacement in the aims of energy policy is presently taking topographic point – towards security of supply and clime change.7 Sustainability is one of the cardinal constructs of the new paradigm. Cost-efficient, sustainable energy policy should take to cut down energy usage before seeking to run into the staying demand by the cleanest means possible.
The planetary tendency at the minute is towards the energy schemes built around the undermentioned hierarchy in energy options from the most sustainable to the least sustainable:9
* Energy preservation: improved energy efficiency and rational usage of energy
* Increasing usage of renewable beginnings
* Exploitation of un-sustainable resources utilizing low-carbon engineerings
The displacement to renewable, energy-efficient and low-carbon engineerings driven by energy security and clime alteration concerns is doing progress although at a slower gait than desired. A passage from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economic system will more likely occur, over the longer-term.
Global Trends in Renewable Energy
Renewable energy, which constitutes one of the three indispensable pillars of the new energy paradigm,10 has become a high precedence among energy policy schemes on a planetary graduated table. In most states, depending on the on-going paradigm alteration, renewable energy policies are germinating rapidly11 Many states are in the procedure of deregulating and reconstituting their electric power industries. The cardinal passage of the universes energy markets has begun.
As illustrated in Table 1 and 2, a figure of developed, transitioning states, and developing states have already adopted some type of policy to advance renewable power coevals. The most common existing policy is the feed-in law13 ( feed-in duties ) , which has been enacted in many states and parts in recent old ages. There are many other signifiers of policy support for renewable power coevals, including Renewable Portfolio Standards ( RPS ) policies, direct capital investing subsidies or discounts, revenue enhancement inducements and credits, gross revenues revenue enhancement and value added revenue enhancement ( VAT ) freedoms, direct production payments or revenue enhancement credits ( i.e. , per kWh ) , green certification trading, net metering, direct public investing or funding, and public competitory command for specified measures of power coevals.
In at least 66 states worldwide, policy marks for renewable energy have been implemented. Included among these states are all 27 European Union states, 29 U.S. provinces ( and D.C. ) , and 9 Canadian provinces.14 Table 3 demonstrates that most marks are for portions of Electricity production, primary energy,15 and/or concluding energy16 by a specific day of the month. Most marks aim for the 2010-2012 timeframe, although an increasing figure of marks aim for 2020. There is now an EU-wide mark of 20 per centum of concluding energy consumption17 by 2020, and a Chinese mark of 15 per centum of primary energy by 2020. Most states have set high ends for the use of renewable energy by the center of the century, but present twenty-four hours use of renewable beginnings of energy is dominated by developed states such as the United States, Germany, Spain and Denmark, every bit good Brazil and China, the taking developing states. Hydroelectric power is the dominant renewable energy due to its widespread usage but air current energy and solar power are fast turning signifiers of renewable energy beginnings.
The European Union ( EU ) is soon taking planetary action in speed uping the passage to renewable energy and a low-carbon economic system. Harmonizing to the European Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs, “ we are at the beginning of 3rd industrial revolution – the rapid development of an wholly new energy system. We can anticipate a monolithic displacement towards a carbon-free electricity system, immense force per unit area to cut down energy ingestion and conveyance on the footing of renewable electricity
The EU is heading towards the Third Industrial Revolution by doing some binding committednesss. On March 2007, European leaders signed up to a adhering EU-wide mark to beginning 20 % of their energy demands from renewables such as biomass, hydro, air current, and solar power by 2020. On 23 January 2008, the European Commission put frontward differentiated marks for each EU member province, based on their several per capita GDP. As portion of the overall mark, accomplishing at least 10 % of their conveyance fuel ingestion from bio-fuels is a adhering minimal mark for each member province. Under President Obama, the United States is besides increasing its trust on green energy: 25 % of its electricity is to be generated from renewable energy beginnings by 2025. As a effect of these new policies, planetary investing in renewable energy and the installed renewable capacity of the universe has progressively grown over the past decennary, as illustrated in Figures 1-4. 14
Harmonizing to REN21 Renewables Global Status Report, many indexs of renewable energy have shown dramatic additions in the 2000s. Annual renewable energy investing has reached $ 120 billion in 2008. Global power capacity from new renewable energy beginnings ( excepting big hydro ) expanded to 280 GW in 2008 – a 16 per centum rise from the 240 GW in 2007 and a 75 per centum addition from 160 GW in 2004, as illustrated in Table 1. The top six states were China ( 76 GW ) , The United States ( 40 GW ) , Germany ( 34 GW ) , Spain ( 22 GW ) , India ( 13 GW ) , and Japan ( 8 GW ) . The capacity in developing states grew to 119 GW or 43 per centum of entire with China ( little hydro and air current ) and India ( air current ) taking the addition. A important milepost was reached in 2008 when added power capacity from renewables in both the United States and the European Union exceeded added power capacity from conventional power ( including gas, coal, oil and atomic ) and renewables represented more than 50 % of sum added capacity.
Harmonizing to European Photovoltaic Industry Association ( EPIA ) , planetary installed solar photovoltaic power grew by 44 per centum in 2009 funded by German subsidies. The planetary solar photovoltaic electricity ( PV ) market counted an extra addition in installed capacity of about 6.4 GW in 2009, making a entire capacity of over 20 GW worldwide. This has been the most of import one-year capacity addition of all time and is peculiarly impressive in visible radiation of the hard fiscal and economical fortunes during the past twelvemonth. Germany was the largest demand market last twelvemonth, adding 3 gigawatts ( GW ) , followed by Italy, Japan and the United States. Germany will probably stay biggest demand market in 2010, ing to the EPIA. In 2010, planetary tive installed PV capacity is expected grow by at least 40 % , while the growing is expected to increase by more than 15 % . Despite strong growing, solar power still provides merely approximately 0.5 per centum of planetary installed electricity capacity.
Among new renewables ( renewables excepting big hydropower ) , wind power was the largest add-on to renewable energy capacity. Since 2000, air current power has the highest capacity of all renewables.
The Global Wind Energy Council announced that the universe ‘s air current power capacity grew by 31 % in 2009, adding 37.5 gigawatts ( GW ) to convey entire installings up to 157.9 GW. The chief markets driving this important growing continue to be Asia, North America, and Europe, each of which installed more than 10 GW of new air current capacity in 2009. China was the universes largest market in 2009, more than duplicating its air current coevals capacity from 12.1 GW in 2008 to 25.1 GW at the terminal of 2009 with new capacity add-ons of 13 GW. A freshly added capacity of 1,270 MW in India and some smaller add-ons in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan make Asia the biggest regional market for wind energy in 2009, with more than 14 GW of new capacity. The U.S. air current energy market installed about 10 GW in 2009, increasing the state ‘s installed capacity by 39 % and conveying the entire installed grid-connected capacity to 35 GW. Europe, which has traditionally been the universe ‘s largest market for wind energy development, continued to see strong growing, besides transcending outlooks. In 2009, 10.5 GW were installed in Europe, led by Spain ( 2.5GW ) and Germany ( 1.9 GW ) . Italy, France, and the UK all added more than 1 GW of new air current capacity each. 39 % of all new capacity installed in 2009 was wind power, followed by gas ( 26 % ) and solar photovoltaic ( 16 % ) . Europe decommissioned more coal and atomic capacity than it installed in 2009. Take together, renewable energy engineerings account for 61 % of new power bring forthing capacity in 2009. As demonstrated, the air current energy industry has emerged as a major growing sector in a figure of states.
Among developing states, China and India are progressively playing a major function in both the fabrication and installing of air current energy. While taking air current turbine makers are based in industrialized states like Denmark, Germany, and Spain, India and China have caught up really rapidly- both through edifice up their ain air current industries and through support for air current energy deployment. Within the last decennary, they managed to come on from holding no air current turbine makers to hosting taking companies capable of fabricating whole air current turbines. It should be emphasized that these states can function as of import illustrations of how leapfrogging19 is possible in footings of industrial development and engineering acceptance in the energy sector.
Turkey ‘s Renewable Energy Policies and Schemes
Turkey has significant renewable energy potency. Renewables make the second-largest part to domestic energy production and ingestion after coal.20 ( See Figure 5 ) 21 However commercial usage of renewable energy in Turkey, excepting large-scale hydropower, has non developed in proportion to its big resource base. Renewable energy usage has been dominated by big hydro and biomass ( largely wood and animate being wastes ) .20 The immense potency of Turkey in renewables like air current, solar, and geothermal has non been used expeditiously until recently22. ( See Table 4 & A ; Table 5 ) 23 Unfortunately, the usage of new renewables ( renewables excepting big hydro ) is hence still highly limited because of low growth.24 Although the absolute value of renewable energy usage grows, its portion of the Total Primary Energy Supply ( TPES ) does non increase since it does n’t turn in proportion with energy ingestion as illustrated in Figure 6. So, the portion of fossil fuels continues to increase.24
In the event that Turkey continues prosecuting the same policy, it is more likely that renewable portions will go on diminishing instead than increasing. Just as, entire portion of renewable in TPES has declined depending on, chiefly, diminishing biomass usage ( Table 5 ) 23 and the turning function of natural gas in the system. It has been estimated that the portion of renewable energy will diminish to % 9 of TPES in 2020.20 As illustrated in Figure 7, the portion of installed renewable capacity in entire installed capacity dramatically decreased in the last decade.25 In add-on, Turkeys extremely supply-oriented energy policy dominated, with accent placed on guaranting extra energy supply to run into the turning demand, while the sustainability standards remained a lower precedence.
Turkey is presently faced with serious environmental and energy security challenges. As illustrated in Figure 8, the portion of imported fuels continues to increase and more than approximately 70 % of the entire primary energy ingestion in the state is met by imports.25 And as illustrated in Figures 9 and 10, entire CO2 emanations are quickly increasing.25 Energy strength remains excessively high in comparing to the other OECD Countries.26 Therefore, environmental and energy security hazards continue to increase in Turkey. Turkey s energy state of affairs is obviously unsustainable and in struggle with the emerging energy paradigm every bit good as with modern-day planetary energy tendencies. Changing these unsustainable forms is one of the chief challenges for Turkey. It is clear that the bing renewable energy potency must be realized in a sensible clip period. It is a measure in the right way that determination shapers in Turkey have already on the docket to use hydro and renewable resources such as air current, and geothermic energy to run into in demand in a sustainable mode.
Recently, advancement has been made with respect to renewable energy ordinances. The Electricity Market Law, which was enacted in March 2001, authorized the Energy Market Regulatory Agency ( EMRA ) to take the necessary steps to advance the use of renewable energy resources27. The First Renewable Energy Law No. 5346, entered into force in 200528. The Renewable Energy Law was a cardinal measure for beef uping the state ‘s decentralized renewable energy sector. However, much more still needs to be done. It is an pressing demand to better the state ‘s Renewable Energy Strategy. Turkey is besides seeking to take new stairss for exciting renewable energy usage and investings to speed up the passage to renewable energy.
Following the passage of the Renewable Energy Law No. 5346 in May 2005, investor involvement in the renewable energy sector has risen distinctively29 This is particularly the instance in relation to the coevals of electricity through hydro workss and air current farms22. A crisp addition in the figure of license appliers for renewables has occurred. Despite a rise in the Numberss, the involvement in renewable energy undertakings was hindered by the loaners ‘ reluctance because of the uncertainness in the purchase warrants. As a consequence, the authorities introduced an of import series of amendments in 200730 and 200831. The amendment to the jurisprudence in May 2007 secured a changeless purchase monetary value for all types of renewable beginnings. Current inducements to advance renewable energy by The Electricity Market Law with No. 4628 and Renewable Energy Law with No. 5346 are shown in Table 6.32 Following these amendments important advancement has been made. As illustrated in Table 7, a sum of 601 renewable undertakings with a capacity of 15500 MW have been licensed by 2009.22 The attempts successfully resulted in significant additions in the air current and geothermic capacity, as illustrated in Figures 11-12. However, as Tables 4 and 7 demonstrate22 solar capacity has non developed and it clearly needs farther publicity. Therefore, a Draft Amendment to the Renewable Energy Law has late been prepared in order to supply farther inducements to the renewable energy sector. This Draft Law will turn to issues such as the finding of different purchase monetary values for the electricity produced from different types of renewable energy, simpler trade mechanism for renewable pool, and extra support in ness electro-mechanical equipment manufactured in Turkey. Harmonizing to this Draft Law, different monetary values changing from Euro Cent 5 /kwh t0 Euro Cent 18 /kwh w^ ^e applied to the purchase of eleetricity depending on the type of renew. able energy resource used ( seeTable 8 ) .32 It is considered to be a more realistic attack than the Renewable Energy Law since it contemplates the application of higher and different monetary values depending on the type of renewable energy resources, and therefore, responds better to the demands of the sector. The purpose is chiefly to spread out the use of solar energy for bring forthing electrical energy in Turkey. However, the Last Amendment to the Renewable Energy Law has yet to be implemented. The Draft Amending Law was supposed to go through the National General Assembly on June, 2009. But it was suspended to reconsider purchase monetary values because it would make an excess load on the exchequer. It is still under treatment in the Turkish National General Assembly.
Turkey is besides now at the phase of puting marks for renewable energy development. The Higher Board of Planning adopted the “ Electric Energy Market and Supply Security Strategy Paper ” 33 in May 2009. In this Strategy Paper, the long term primary mark is “ to guarantee that the portion of renewable resources in electricity coevals is increased up to at least 30 % by 2023. ” This scheme papers was published as a general route map to increase the portion of renewable energy in electricity coevals. Within the model of the Strategy Paper, long term attempts will take into consideration the following marks by 2023:
* Ensure that available technically and economically hydro- electric potency is to the full utilised,
* Increase installed weave energy power to 20,000 MW,
* Commission all geothermic potency of 600 MW that is presently considered as suited for electric production,
* Generalize the usage of solar energy for bring forthing energy and guarantee maximal use of state potency,
* Follow and implement closely technological progresss in the usage of solar energy for electricity coevals,
* Amend consequently the Law No. 5346 to promote coevals of electricity utilizing solar energy,
* Prepare and bring forth programs that will take into history the possible alterations in use potencies of other renewable energy resources based on technological and legislative developments and in instance of additions, use of such resources, portion of fossil fuels and peculiarly of imported resource, will be reduced consequently.
Recently, the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources prepared its Strategic Plan covering the period between 2010 and 2014.25 Increasing the portion of renewable energy resources is one of the programs ends to supply energy supply security.
Near-term marks are the undermentioned:
* The hydro electricity programs of 5,000 MW under building will be completed by 2013.
* The air current works installed capacity, which was 802.8 MW as of 2009, will be increased up to 10,000 MW by 2015.
* The installed capacity for the geothermal works will be increased from 77.2 MW in 2009 up to 300 MW by 2015.
Both of this long term and close term scheme programs are non, on their ain, lawfully adhering. It is, nevertheless, expected that their commissariats will be incorporated into future ordinances and statute law.
Although Turkey has important renewable energy resources for electricity production, this potency has non yet been used expeditiously. The legislator in Turkey has taken of import stairss in order to advance the usage of renewable energy resources in the production of electricity and to promote the investings in this market. However, Turkey is doing comparatively slow advancement in the realisation of its purposes of renewable energy. The ground for this is that policies and steps adopted in the state taking to heighten the usage of renewable energy beginnings are chiefly driven by the demands of the EU accession procedure. It seems that Turkey could n’t internalise the new energy paradigm specifically plenty, although it has adapted to the EUs ordinances. First of wholly, the paradigm alteration should right be understood and internalized by the Turkish authorities. This would let the authorities to put up a legal and institutional model conducive to this new energy paradigm, draws up the specifications of what the energy system of the hereafter should look like, and formulate policy following the new energy paradigm. Second, the administrative staff should be educated and trained on how to implement and internalise the new energy paradigm, because one of the cardinal facets of this procedure is a conceptual re-invention of how energy ingestion and production is done and how the related establishments operate.
Turkey should set about comprehensive attempts to get rid of the failings in its policies and ordinances and how they are implemented. It is a race against the clip as prima states compete with each other in this race towards the Third Industrial Revolution. If Turkey does n’t desire to lose out on the Third Industrial Revolution, and if it wants to catch up with taking developing states, such as China and India, which managed to catch up with the developed states, it should instantly speed up the passage procedure to renewable energy.
Technological leapfrogging is one of the ways to accomplish this goal.34 From a conventional point of position, developing states passively adopt engineering as standard merchandises, which have been developed in industrial states. However, leapfrogging represents an attractive option for these late industrializing states. The function of technological leapfrogging within a sustainable development context35 is non automatic, since leapfrogging entirely does non vouch or even promote prosperity. However, from a more philosophical position, it has been argued that there is, in fact, no option to leapfrogging for developing countries.36 If these states do non try to update their engineerings, they face exclusion from the planetary mainstream economic tendencies every bit good as continued want and poorness for their people. Turkey should besides non reiterate the energy history of the industrialised countries37. Similarly to the success narratives of the Indian and Chinese air current industries, leapfrogging chances may besides be for Turkey with its huge potency of renewable resources.
Decision shapers in Turkey should internalise the construct of leapfrogging as an built-in portion of their renewable energy vision and should seek to implement its many possible applications. However, in order to protect the investing of the state ‘s scarce resources available for advanced engineerings, as is the instance in most underdeveloped states, and to separate between fortunes where leapfrogging may or may non be successful, careful and elaborate analyses should be carried out.
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15. Energy that has non been subjected to any transition or transmutation procedure.
16. Form of energy available to the user following the transition from primary energy bearers such as rough oil, natural gas, atomic energy, coal and regenerative energies.
17. Sum of the energy supplied to the concluding user for all energy utilizations.
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19. Technology leapfrogging is a term used to depict the bypassing of technological phases that other states have gone trough. This is the definition used by Edward Steinmueller in the paper titled “ ICTS ‘ and the ; Possibilities for Leapfroging by Developing States, ” International Labor Review, Vol.140, No.2 ( 2001 ) , p. 194.
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