Training and Development University of Phoenix HCS/341 Training and Development Training and development in today’s health care setting is an imperative process that must be engrained within an organizational structure. The organization’s Human Resource (HR) department must ensure that every employee in the organization is correctly trained to perform the job duties that are assigned. Managers must accurately measure each employee’s competencies in order to strategically plan and implement training and development programs geared towards the progression of the corporation.
This paper will explain why training and development are vital in healthcare, the importance of measuring competencies, as well as describe the processes for tracking and evaluating training effectiveness. Training & Education Many people often correlate training in conjunction with development, although, these terms are to some extent analogous, both terms bear two different meanings. (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2010). In the book “Managing Human Resources”, the term training is defined as “The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance” (Gomez-Mejia et al. 2010, p. 246). On the other hand, development is defined as “an effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future” (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010, p. 246). In the health care setting, training and development of each health care professional is essential to improving the delivery of medical services for patients and their families as well as organizational and personal growth. Medical litigation seems to be one of the biggest issues affecting healthcare today. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), which is an agency of the U.
S. Department of health and human services, one of the most common root causes of medical error is the lack of training and education (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ], 2010). The AHRQ states: Organizational transfer of knowledge can include deficiencies in orientation or training, and lack of, or inconsistent, education and training for those providing care. This category of cause deals with the level of knowledge needed by individuals to perform the tasks that they are assigned. Transfer of knowledge is critical in areas where new employees or temporary help is often used.
The organizational transfer of knowledge addresses how things are done in a particular organization or health care unit. This information is often not communicated or transferred. Organizational transfer of knowledge is also a critical issue in academic medical centers where physicians in training often rotate through numerous centers of care. ([AHRQ], 2010, Chapter 2) In order to reduce these common issues affecting healthcare, HR departments’ responsibility is to implement proper training regimens geared toward supporting the organization’s goals and missions.
Certain training techniques are geared toward focusing on the skills needed to perform job duties. Some of the types of trainings include: skills, retaining, cross-functional, team, literacy, customer service, etc. (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). By receiving essential required training, health care professionals would then be able to effectively deliver quality care, furthermore, improving individual and organizational performance in efforts to achieve business and personal growth (Bureau of Labor statistics, U. S. Department of Labor [BLS, DOL], 2009). Measuring Competencies
Measuring competencies is an extremely important process for HR. Accurately evaluating the validity of each employee’s goes a long way in ensuring protection for the organization as well as the individuals receiving health care. Managers must conduct a Task Analysis, which is an examination of the job or duties to be performed (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). A properly conducted job analysis should contain all the necessary information needed to understand job requirements and should be used to identify knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to execute job functions (Gomez-Mejia et al. 2010) . Once the analysis is completed, the KSAs are then used to determine what kind of training is needed for the organization (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). By accurately evaluating each employee’s competency level, HR is then able to develop strategic plans that will advance growth for the organization as well as the individual. Measuring competencies is also vital to make certain all staff members have the proficiency to abide by the standards and requirements set by government agencies.
If competencies are not measured correctly, liability and ethics issues may arise which can result in costly litigation battles that may impede an organization’s growth. Tracking &Evaluating Training Effectiveness The process for tracking and evaluating training effectiveness takes place in the evaluation phase of the training program (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). In this phase, evaluation of training effectiveness is assessed through a four-level framework method (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010).
The book “Managing Human Resources” illustrates the process of the evaluation phase and the classification of the four-level framework system. The book states: Level 1 refers to the reaction of the trainees, and it may consist of ratings on a satisfaction scale that assess how happy trainees are with the training. Level 2 refers to how much the trainees learn, and it may be assessed with a skill exercise. Level 3 refers to the trainees’ behavior, and it may be measured by observers of the work operation.
Level 4 refers to the results, which are generally assessed through the financial measure of return on investment (ROI). Results, the highest level of measurement, seem to be the most desirable way of assessing the success of a training program. (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010, p. 264) This evaluation process in then followed by four levels of evaluation employed by Garrett Engine Division (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). The Garrett Engine Division evaluation process measures performance before and after the training for both trained and untrained employees (Gomez-Mejia et al. 2010). HR must also conduct performance appraisals, which is the identification, measurement, and management of human performance in the health care organization to make certain employees are receiving effective training (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). Conclusion In summary, quality training, education, and development is imperative for the success of any healthcare organization. In order to achieve optimal development and growth for the organization and the employees, HR must implement proper training and development programs within the organization’s structure.
Competency assessment is vital in the process of building an employee’s career development plan, in addition to reducing organizational liability issues (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). Therefore, accurately measuring competencies and training effectiveness through an evaluation phase and performance appraisals prove to be beneficial in a variety of ways, ranging from operational to strategic purposes (Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2010). References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2010). Efforts to Reduce Medical Errors: AHRQ’s Response to Senate Committee on Appropriations Questions.
In AHRQ’s Patient Safety Initiative (Ch. 2). Retrieved from http://www. ahrq. gov/qual/pscongrpt/psini2. htm Bureau of Labor statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. (2009). Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists. In Occupational Outlook Handbook (2010-11 ed. ). Retrieved from http://www. bls. gov/oco/ocos021. htm Gomez-Mejia, L. R. , Balkin, D. B. , & Cardy, R. L. (2010). Managing Human Resources (6th ed. ) [Adobe Reader]. doi: ISBN: 9780136093527 Mays, S. , Swetnich, D. , & Gorken, L. 2002, March). Towards a Unique Patient Identifier . Health Management Technology, 23(3), 42. doi: ISSN:10744770 United States Department of Labor. (2009). Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists. Retrieved from http://www. bls. gov/oco/ocos021. htm Wager, K. A. , Lee, F. W. , Glaser, J. P. , & Burns, L. R. (2009). Purpose of Patient Records. In Health Care Information Systems. A Practical Approach for Health Care Management (2nd ed. , pp. 8-9). [Adobe Reader]. doi: ISBN: 9780470387801
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