The reason why roman republic collapsed Roman republic began with the over throw of the roman monarchy and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elect annually by the citizens and advised by senate. During the first two centuries of its existence the Roman republic expanded rapidly through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. Then republic continues to conquest new land such as North Africa, Greece, Southern France and Spain. For about 500 years, the Roman republic exists and has many significant achievements in many fields.
However, the republic finally collapsed and reformed as participate. Octavian becomes the first Augustus which was the first Roman emperor. There are some reasons why republic collapsed and reformed to empire. In this project, I’m going to discuss what reason leads to the collapse of republic from the internal view and external point of view. The problem within the government system is one internal weakness of roman republic. The government od Roman republic had three major supports, which offset and balanced on another. (textbook 91) The supreme civil and ilitary offices were two men called consuls.
In later the Romans appointed a man as dictator, whose authority surpassed that of the consuls, but dictator cannot hold their office more six months. The second part was an advisory body of elder stateman, the senate. The last part of government system were assemblies that included all adult male citizens. In their government system, province is one of causes that Roman republic collapsed. Roman republic is a history of conquest. As Roman republic expanding, they conquer and captured a lot of new land. Now they need to manage hose lands.
Province is the method they manage the lands. Province means to denote the various regions that they acquired through conquest in Latin word. The senate choose the governors for the various provinces and often give then the title proconsul(in place of consul). These governors had absolute power to rule their provinces. The only thing they can’t do is violate Roman law or act illegally against Roman citizen. (textbook 102) This is a good way to manage the lands that they conquered. From roman view, the advantage of the system was its efficiency:
Rebellions were not common, and troops stationed in the provinces could maintain control without resorting massacres. However, as Roman republic conquered more land, they have so many provinces that need to govern. Some provincial governors ruled fairly, but others were notorious for their corruption. In addition, Roman republic combined Macedonia and Greece in to a province. But the domination came at a price. Without the need for unity against outside enemies, roman society began to lose its cohesiveness. (Textbook 100)This in turn led to the decline of the republic.
Another weakness that led Roman republic collapses also come from conquest. There is the social change that happened in Italy. The cause is the war that call Hannibal’s legacy. For the ravages of years of fighting up and down, Italy had brought many farmers to the point of ruin. There had been a great increase in the slave population on Italian soil from prisoners of war, and these slaves depressed the wages paid to private works. (Textbook 102) Wealthy citizens had enriched themselves with booty land or willing to sell it to these newly wealthy men.
They have no choice to Join the ranks of permanently unemployed. Those people who still have some money to buy their armor could be drafted into the army. For those who could no longer find work lost the spirit of cohesion and loyalty to their society. They become prey to demagogues and many become supporters of that warlord. This cause a unstable in Roman republic society. The gap between upper classes and lower class has significant increased. One other weakness is the power of warlords. In Roman republic, generals have strong power. They have army and these army more like a rivate army.
These army usually fght enemies far away from Rome. They all support their general. Some powerful generals can even use army to seize political power. (Textbook 104) The one first general to do so was Gaius Marius. Marius gained much reputation by winning a war and defeated an invasion by some Germanic tribes. Marius abolished the old requirement that a soldier had to own at least a modest amount of property, and he also accepted volunteers instead of Just drafting men for service Finally he converted the army in to an instrument for ambitious commanders uring the remaining years of the republic.
For Sulla the dictator, he is and later general. He invaded the city of Rome with his supports. Sulla did have some political program to re shape the Roman republic. He enforce the dictator ship and reduce the power of senate. He forced a law that blocked tribune from holding any other office, they also had to wait ten years to be reelected. These discourage those ambitious politicians from seeking this office. (Textbook 104)And even for the later Caesar, he did a series of rapid reforms in many areas of Roman life.
He reduce the power of Senate by raising the membership of the Senate to about nine hundred, picking it with many of his veteran offices. He even make dictator for his whole life. However, he showed too little respect for the Senate and republican from once he become dictator, and for this he paid with his life. Many people think about the death of Caesar ends Roman republic. However, the collapse of Roman Republic is the accumulation the weakness. Whether Caesar dead or not, what he done rose to the absolute summit of roman politics and destroy Roman republic.
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