The history of pornography has been dated back to prehistoric times. The actual word is derived from the Greek language. The date of when the word pornographic was first used in Greek is not known but a related word “pornography” meaning “someone writing of harlots” was used in a writing called Depositories of Athenians. In the French language the word “Pornographic” was in used during the sass. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until 1857 or as a French import in New Orleans in 1842. Rossini, 2007) It is believed that the people of ancient societies felt it was not worthy to preserve pornography because it was customary in their society. Even though the early history of pornography is unclear there is artwork from many ancient civilizations like ancient Greece, Ancient India, and Rome where erotic pictures often appeared in religious context. (Godson) In ancient Greece the idea of pornography was very different from ours. Even though the Greeks had artwork such as paintings and pictures that depicted nudity, they were more tolerant and have different views on what was considered to be immoral and obscene.
There were prostitutes that were used where the women were used and raped against their will and the men who raped them would become their husband. This was all considered to be k under the Goddess Aphrodite. There were also religious ceremonies where a woman and her partner would perform sex in public to help the crops grow. (Klutz, 2009) In ancient India nudity in art was acceptable in southern India. In Junta, India there are sculptures and pictures that depict this type of art. Historical evidence showed that most countries that are in tropical climates have people who do not wear clothes other than for fashion.
The need to cover the upper halve of the body was unnecessary, only in certain parts of ancient India was the upper halve of the body dressed with precious stones or gold while the women would wear expensive silks and shares (Godson) In Ancient Roman society the role of pornography in society was portrayed in the form of art and in writings such as poetry. Some of the poetry that depicted pornography was in Odes to Piraeus showed descriptions of intimate sexual relationships and Catcalls and Ovid who wrote about a cruel and demanding mistress.
Roman pornography was different from the Greeks because there was no entailment value and reasoning behind the porn that was depicted. Roman pornography was considered to be more towards annalistic portrayals and being purely sexual. The sexual drive for the Romans were very strong and one of their mottos was to divide and conquer in the bedroom as well as in the battlefield. (Scarping, 2012) The different forms of pornography are in writings, images, sculptures like art. In 18th-century Europe, pornography became a way for protest for people against royalty and other aristocrats.
During the 20th century, restrictions on pornography were more relaxed throughout much of Europe and North America, Hough regulations remained strict in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. In our modern culture viewing pornography in private may be considered to be offensive but there are still laws that restricts the viewing of certain types of pornography such as child porn Oinks, 2014). Depending on the culture pornography is viewed in different ways. For instance people may look at pornographic images as a religious aspect while in another culture pornography may be considered to be more erotic.
Some may feel that it is completely absurd. The different parts of the world have different ways that pornography is incorporated into their societies. The perspective against pornography brings up an important issue that includes violence against women, men, and children. They also cite issues of demutualization of sex, addiction, health concerns, and relationship issues. The demutualization of sex has been linked to the overwhelming amount of pornography that is available for the consumer.
It has been shown in studies that the amount of porn available on the Internet is directly related to the way humans hunter-gatherer brains work and the novelty of viewing person after person in a sexual encounter. This fast paced viewing overload dads to spending more time alone, voyeurism, constant novelty, and the need for shock and surprise. These types of ‘sexual encounters’ leave out some important aspects of real relationships such as pheromones, emotional connection, being touched, and interacting with another person.
One can easily see how this could lead to the inability to have meaningful sexual relationships due to the gradual demutualization of sex as well as being desensitizing to sexual violence. (Tessellated, 2012) A study done on the effects of pornography confirmed the idea that there is a link between high consumption of pornography and the prediction of sexual aggression. They studied the percentage of sexual perpetration, perspectives on intimate relationships, and beliefs of the rape myth (the rape myth is belief that belittles rape and tends to blame the victim for the crime).
In every area of this meta- analysis they found that exposure to pornography increases the risk for an individual to commit sexual offenses, experience struggles with intimate relationships, and have higher acceptance rates of the rape myth. “Another meta-analysis examined 30 different studies with a total of 2,040 participants and concluded that exposure to pornography increases behavioral aggression… He researchers conclude that a connection between exposure to pornography and subsequent behavioral aggression exists” (Allen, Deadlines, Breezes, 1995).
The sexual aggression quantities are four times higher in an individual who consumes pornography habitually. The health effects that have been associated with Internet pornography addiction include social anxiety, depression, performance anxiety, and erectile dysfunction. ADD, COD, social anxiety, depression, and performance anxiety are thought to be possible precursors to the addiction and can be reversed by changing their behaviors. In a study done called, “Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! ” they found that out of all the activities on the Internet, porn has the highest addictive rate.
They believe this is due to the brains reward circuit and how it drives us towards natural rewards like food, close personal relationships, and sex. These drives produce the secretion of dopamine and if too much dopamine is released it can override our natural satiation mechanisms. For instance, with excess high calorie food consumption, an individual ‘s ability to feel full’ becomes harder to satisfy and major health concerns an ensue. In comparison to natural reward addictions, unnatural rewards like drugs or alcohol only make addicts of about 10% of users.
The more the consumption over time, the more the dopamine surges; this then causes the binge mechanism that causes Delta-Foss to accumulate. The build up of Delta-Foss creates the cravings for more and alters the brain with a cycle of binging and craving. If this cycle continues, the brain will have structural changes that result in a numbed pleasure response, overexcited reactions to porn, and diminished self-control. In a study done with roomer Internet porn addicts, they found that these changes in the brain can reverse back to normal once the behavior is under control.
The number one reason men try to stop their consumption of porn is directly related to erectile dysfunction and sexual performance. In these cases, the Delta-Foss build up and structural changes cause the erectile dysfunction. (Tessellated, 2012) The perspectives that support pornography are some of the following: it can facilitate healthy views on sex, reduce crime or aggression, and be economically beneficial. A study, done at the Pacific Center for Sex and Society at the University of
Hawaii, looked at the sexual violence rates in countries where pornography is legalized. They found that with the increased popularity and consumption of pornography, that rates of sexual violence were reduced. The study concluded that this could be evidence that viewing pornography can provide a ‘catharsis’ for individuals who have predispositions of hostile behavior. (Pappas, 2012, Para. 4) In a Danish study done with more than 600 men and women aged 18-30, they found that that the overall consensus was that viewing pornography had a positive effect on their lives.
They stated that it was beneficial for ‘sexual knowledge, attitudes toward ex, perceptions of the opposite sex, healthy sex lives, and general quality of life’ (Langley, 2012, Para. 4). The economical benefits of pornography include its extensive revenue and employment. In the United States, Internet porn acquires $2. 84 billion each year, and worldwide it brings in $4. 9 billion. (“Porn Addiction Statistics,” n. D) The sociological implications that are intertwined with sociology are the following: Economy Although there are benefits economically, there is a decline in Jobs because of the amount that is available for free.
This as a result brings a downfall in the economy of the pornographic industry. The top adult entertainment companies include Vivid Entertainment in the United States, Playboy also in the United States, Airstreams in the Netherlands and Freeness Films in Brazil. Some of the major porn producing nations are Russia, Spain, Germany, and Japan. According to topdressings. Com, in 2006 the countries that had the largest revenue from the porn is the US $13. 33 billion, South Korea had $25. 73 billion, China had $27. 40 billion, and Japan $19. 8 billion. (Cruz, 2010) The porn industry is a major part of the world economy, creating employment and large-scale revenue. According to topdressings. Com, there is over 3,000 spent every second on pornography across the world. However, it is difficult to estimate the accurate statistics for the entire industry as a large part of the industry operates underground. (Cruz, 2010) There is a problem with the pornography being watch at work. Companies are losing money on the how much time their employees spend watching at work.
According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics on March 30, 2012 a study that looked at how much money was being lost because employees of an undisclosed employer. There was about 28% of people using the computers to look up porn and showed an average of $23. 3 per hour by 1 hour and 38 minutes of watching porn came up with $38 a month and $456 a year per employee. If the 132 million people who were reported as workers in March 2012 and divided to represent the 28% of people who watch porn at work ended up with 37 million people who watch porn at work causing an annual productivity loss for companies around $16. Billion. (Godliest, 2012) There is a lot of money being spent on pornography. Some hotel chains have pornography delivered to them by one of two major distribution companies, which are Lodgment and On Command. The hotel chains have reported that there is a 5%- 0% in profit Just from pornography purchases. On the Internet search engines like Yahoo made money off selling ads and links to porn websites. The price for getting a website listed that did not have porn on it was about $200 where porn sites were $600.
Yahoo had suffered a lot of criticism about a sex shop that was opened up in 2001 but closed in January 2002 because there was legal action taken against them Patrick Truman a former Chief of Justice for child exploitation and obscenity section. (Herd, 2002) On the Internet there are websites that are very popular for their pornography. The top websites are Pronoun which gets 2. Billion views monthly page views, Weaponry getting 2. 1 billion, Tube 8 getting 970 million, compared too website like Wisped which gets about 8 million page views monthly.
The actual amount of money that porn companies are really making is not easy to find because the info is not traded in public. Although there are estimates that show since 2006 out of $3. 62 billion in rentals and video sales, pornography created $2. 84 billion. The industry is headed in a whole new direction from renting videos to digital video streaming. (Rosen, 2013) Although there is so much money being produce by this industry there re some problems that arise with all the new technologies that come along with it. The bootlegging or pirating of porn that is copy written and sold takes away from the money that can be created.
The increase of free porn websites also makes it more convenient (Rosen, 2013) for someone to get hold of pornographic material in way that doesn’t cost them anything but a computer and a internet connection. All of these factors play an important role in the economy of the pornographic industry. (Rosen, 2013) Families Pornography can have a negative impact on families and children. It can affect all members of the family. Pornography can cause a lack of interest in the conjugal relations between spouses. Couples affected by one spouse’s addiction usually experience a loss of interest in sexual intercourse and good family relations.
Pornography can be a gateway to infidelity and is often a main cause for divorce. Pornography can cause Just as much pain and devastation to a marriage or family as actual infidelity. It can cause divorce or separation from which deep psychological and emotional ramifications could arise for the victimized spouse and children. Children of families who are broken apart from pornography grow up with a countermanding of sexuality and can develop trust and relationship issues of their own. Children can experience traumas related to encounters with their parents’ pornographic material. A study of adolescents revealed that viewing sexually explicit internet materials significantly increased their uncertainties about sexuality, and it can lower their self-esteem and bring about feelings of loneliness and depression. ” (Fagan) When a child lives in a home where an adult is consuming pornography, there is a risk of the child suffering from a decreased amount of time ND attention from that parent leading to emotional and psychological issues. The child is also at an increased risk of encountering pornographic material that he or she may not be sexually mature to enough to view.
It is not Just the person with the addiction or compulsion of watching pornography who suffers from the negative effects it can cause. The entire family involved can be effected and is at risk for the detrimental results that can occur. Health The are many health implications that come along with the use of pornography ranging from mental and psychiatric to medical and physical health risks. The most prevalent being the psychological effects porn can have on consumers and their families. Some psychologists refer to the over-use of pornography an addiction while others call it a compulsion.
Either way it is labeled; too much porn can have psychological ramifications that lead to serious mental health issues. Another health risk for individuals who consume pornography is an increased likelihood to engage in risky sexual behaviors that are portrayed in various films and photographs. People may not understand that the behaviors seen in pornography are acted out in a enthroned setting and attempt to reenact such behaviors in dangerous ways. Pornography does not exactly promote safe sex concerns and may cause people overlook the importance of using protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
Pornography can cause people to engage in sexual activity with numerous partners because they have been desensitizing to the importance of having one meaningful partner. They seek fulfillment in many different partners and this can lead to easy spread of sexually transmitted infections. The lack of use of protection and the involvement of numerous partners can lead to the easy spread of sexually reanimated infections. Physical injuries can occur from individuals and couples reenacting what they observe in pornography. Some people use pornography as a sort of training video.
Inexperienced couples and individuals try to act out scenarios and end up physically injuring themselves. Thirty- three percent of Americans each year suffers from physical injuries during sexual activity. A portion of those incidents occurs because of pornographic influence. All of these are important health implications that need to be considered. The numerous amounts of research that have been done on the effects of orangeroot conclude with conflicting outcomes. The data found in one study can be completely different from another study.
Paul Wright, who has studied sex in the media and is the assistant professor of telecommunications at Indiana University said, “It’s very easy if you want to support one side or the other, to pull a particular study… Anybody can support one side or another by simply isolating a particular study and talking about it”(Pappas, 2012, Para. 1). This misalignment of information makes the topic a still heated debate. The discrepancies on the studies have to do tit the lack of a control group. (Tessellated, 2012) Pornography has been a part of society almost as long as society itself.
It affects different cultures in various ways in both positive and negative aspects. It is a sociological aspect that has been under heated debate for the different implications that are involved in the topic. There are many negative attributes that come along with pornography that have adverse affects on society but there are positives that come along with it as well. While the negative seems to outweigh the positive, pornography is an industry that is here to stay for the mime being. There is not enough scientific research to prove that it is unhealthy enough to remove or ban it.
However, there is enough information to show it is a subject that needs to be addressed and the risks need to be made known. If proper knowledge of the consequences of pornography are more commonly known, the amount of people affected in a negative way might be significantly reduced. Work Cited: Allen, M. , Deadlines, D. , and Breezes, K. “A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II,” Human Communication Research, Volvo. 22, Number 2 (December, 1995): up. 258-283. Fagan, P. F. (n. D. ). The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Families, and Children.