Definition of tourism
“Tourism is the activity of people travelling to and staying in places outside of their usual environment for not more than one than consecutive year for leisure, for business and other purposes “(Youell 1998). It is about people travelling internationally to experience different cultures.
Hunziker and krapf, in 1941, define tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent resident and not connected with any earning activity. In 1976 tourism society of England define it as tourism is the temporary, short term movement for all purposes.
According to the UNSRID (2001) there were 567m such travelers in 1995. Therefore any social or cultural chances will have an impact on the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. This essay is focus on the tourisms industry within European context but it will refer some cases to specific countries. It will consider how the economic growth of the 50th influence European society and run the development of tourism as a society activity become an integral part of the lifestyle in northern European.
Since the internet and World Wide Web is invented manyindustries have been steadily disrupted. Many businesses found theirselves unable to compete in the today’s digital world. Moreover social industry makes it easier to gather competitive intelligence than ever before. The companies who are ready to adapt these changes could get cost and differentiate advantages, said by Dess et al…2010. Because of this hotel can achieve benefits on both selling side and buy side. In effect it is more costly and time consuming to maintain the relationship with exchanging information about supplies needed, said by Laudon et al…2007.
According to the chaffey in 209, benefits of e-SCM comprise increased process efficiency and it reduces complexity and cost and also improves data integration and innovation. It is said by Hogast, an Australian purchasing association that it enables the hotels to combine their resources to improve process effectiveness. Now days hotels have to cope with perish ability and seasonality of their service offering. These days more than 70% of households in many European countries internet access. There is always a discussion on negative aspects’ of online intermediaries. However internet enables hotels to take over any intermediary and through developing their own channels online they can cut out the middleman. For example, customers were attracted from France Belgium by website by Austrian wellness hotel. It gives the benefits to the hotels that consumers are now used to this online approach. Nowadays more revelers rely on hotel reviews and their increasing seeks value of money. Some hotels are also accused of providing false reviews and information to increase their booking in short time. But in effect it spoils the hotel image of those hotels that provide fake information. There is no doubt that myriads of hotel reviews can have both positive and negative effects on costumer’s expectations. If hotels implements web software to avoid problems then it is the employee who has to learn properly how to use that service. For example, the intercontinental hotel group (IHG) advertises via Google ADWORDS and enables independent media owner to encourage their products in exchange for commission. Furthermore HIG hotels also increase their sales through mobile advertising and a dedicated mobile version of its website (Google 2011). There is also other online services provide by ebay.com, priceline.com, or groupon.com that can be integrated in yield management initiatives to increase customers demand, yet it must be born in mind that heavy discount might advertise affect brand equity (killian branding, 2011)
Culture tourism is the one of the largest growing global tourism market. Culture and creative industries’ are increasingly being used to destination and enhance their competitiveness and attractiveness. Travel for leisure in western European began from minority of privileges classes centuries ago and has develop to mass participation of the people in the post –warera. “In 1950 there were approximately 25 million international tourists and after that it reaches to 616 million in 1997”. This phenomenon was remarkable repaid and has been possible thanks to the economic reforms that follow the 2nd world war. In the UK. The lab our party introduce a massive “reconstruction” program under the supervision of Keynes, an economic adviser. Many locations are developing now for their tangible and intangible culture assets as mean to developing tourism.
The cold environment is not merely a setting in which a rich diversity people live, but rather it encompasses the essential resources upon which the lives and culture depends. Wide cultural differences occur between countries and sometimes between different regions within the same country. Indeed the existence of such difference may be the one principle stimulants of a tourism industry. According to the butler and hinch, 1996 in some developing countries traditional cultural behavior patterns of particular groups of people form one focus of the tourism industry.
The problem is exacerbated because tourists are by definition, strangers in the destination. There dress code and style pattern and behavior are the different to the residents and different from those that the tourist would display at home: shyness “is lean-to and the consequent problems of prostitution, drugs, gambling and sometimes vandalism ensure. All strangers tourist may fall in robbery and crimes perpetrated by the local community who may see these activities. Culture heritage included thought of built tradition building, archaeological heritage, and socio- culture heritage. Architectural heritage may be affected by the climate changing number of ways. The most obvious is the direct effect of rising sea level on those that are near the coast and may be damage by coastal impacts. Cultural change is included both of by factors which are internal and external to culture. Culture would change in the absence of tourism. A serious increase in tourism will cause a “cultural revolution” which result in whole new culture replacing the existing one. The leisure destination concept , with retail as its essential for many people provide a “one stop shop” for all their leisure needs. The sheer number of attracted by such complex give an indication of the importance of the retail tourism enhance by entertainment facilities. Fig 1 shows visitor numbers for retail attraction compared to more traditional UK visitor’s attraction.
Attraction Visitor numbersAttractionVisitor numbers
Trafford centre30 millionChester zoo1.25 million
Meadowhall30 millionBritish museum5.9 million
Blue water 27 millionFew gardens1.3 million
Cadbury world0.5 million
There are a number of reasons for the success of the retail attraction which include the following.
Large – scale complexes which can attract up to 35 million visitors annually.
Open for more than 15 hours per day, 363 day a year.
Free at point entry.
Safe, clean and air condition environment.
Multiple products base- shops, restaurants, bars and entertainment.
Megatrend influences on tourist market
The end of the twentieth century was a great time for transformation in all fields of life. There were many fast paced changes throughout social condition, the economy and technology, which brought many changes with in tourism. The fluxuation and competition within the tourist market not only requires constant observation and the ability to anticipate change, but also being able to react to the new trend before it becomes the norm. This shows the importance of the knowledge in the action of these megatrends which can be classified in to six basic groups; demographics, politics, social and cultural, economics technology and ecology. In each groups there are positive factors, which will either stimulate or dater the development of the tourism, each with variability in strength and effect.
The table of megatrends and tourism development.
In conclusion, with the culture and tourism change tourism industry is growing very fast. Everything is in our hand in which we can solve all the problems. Due to these changes tourism industry day by day and gaining benefits. Also tourist who are out of the country they see different things, different types of people and they also taste different type of food in those countries where they travel. With these companies government take benefits. So these culture and social changes carried many positive and negative impacts on the world which we discuss in my essay.
GLOBEL TOURISM 2ND EDDITION BY William f. Theobald
WWW. OPPAPERS.COM/ ESSAY / EUROPEAN, SOCIAL AND CULTURE RECENT EVENTS.
DR.KRISTIAN J. 2009 TRENDS AND ISSUES IN GLOBAL TOURISM, SPRINGER PUBLICATION.
Archer, B.H.: Demand forecasting and estimation, w: Travel, Tourism and Hospitality [Ed. W.Ritchie & C.Goeldner], Wiley, New York 1989
GEOFFEY WALL, ALISTER MATHIESON TOURISM: CHANGES, IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES.
Kusluvan, S., 2003, Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviours in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Nova Publishers
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