BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In recent old ages, due to promotion of computing machine engineering, the construct of Computer Assisted Instruction is now more prevailing, and has become a tendency ( Yang & A ; Wang, 2001 ) . Electronic larning popularly referred to as e-learning is progressively going acceptable in third establishments all over the universe. This is as a consequence of the chance provided by higher establishments and more pupils taking portion in it ( OECD, 2005 ) . Digital acquisition is fundamentally the usage of information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) to heighten and back up larning learning and research ( Eteng & A ; Ntui, 2009 ) . With digital acquisition, there is a displacement from the traditional attack of teacher-directed didactic to modern methods where computing machine engineering plays an important function, thereby bettering the quality, efficiency and effectivity of instruction, larning, research and educational direction. Its methods including the integrating of the World Wide Web, multimedia, information hunt, electronic libraries, and remote acquisition. In this digital age, instructors must cover with the challenge and developmental chances of how to suitably utilize information engineering and how to incorporate assorted educational stuffs into class design and learning methods ( Rosenberg, 2001 ) . The features of digital acquisition is different from the features of traditional schoolroom environment acquisition, and can better upon some larning jobs of pupils who are physically or mentally challenged, assisting them to larn more efficaciously ( Chen, 2003 ) . It provides stimulation from different channels such as words, images, sounds, life, and images, and can often assist pupils utilize larning maps of different centripetal variety meats, and achieve the larning marks of diverse wisdom ( Li, 1998 ) . In planing digital acquisition, bookmans emphasize that larning ideals instead than computing machine engineering should take the design of a computerized acquisition environment ( Chiou & A ; Chong, 1993 ; Yang & A ; Wang, 2001 ) . The demand for digital acquisition has now become of import more than of all time before as the aim of university instruction in Nigeria as defined in the National Policy on instruction ( 2000 ) includes the proviso of high degree work force for national development and this is to be achieved through its programme of instruction, larning and research. Digital acquisition can assist grownups in developing their literacy and innumeracy accomplishments, while besides constructing Information Communication and Technology accomplishments for life and work ( CILIP, 2005 ) .
In malice of the bright chance of digital acquisition in the state, it is so unreassuring that there are some hurdlings militating against the effectual usage of the educational engineering in Nigeria. Folorunso, Ogunseye, & A ; Sharma ( 2006 ) and Resnick ( 2002 ) indicates that mass unknowingness, low computing machine literacy degree and cost were identified as critical factors impacting the acceptableness of digital acquisition by pupils and lectors of Nigerian universities. Sharma, Ekundayo, & A ; Ngige ( 2009 ) points out that digital larning topographic point high demand on scholars who have to be more proactive and disciplined than in traditional face-to-face instruction whereas this proactiveness and subject is missing. Assorted barriers to ICT usage in Africa schools have been identified to include: hapless substructure, epileptic power supply, deficiency of electricity, deficiency of trained forces, poorness, unequal support and limited or no internet entree ( Aladejana, 2007 ; Jegede, 2005 ) .
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
While there had been a elephantine effort at incorporating digital acquisition into direction in other advanced states, Nigeria is non yet fascinated by the potency of engineering to heighten instruction and acquisition. Many of our schools are dawdling behind in incorporating engineering into direction. Teachers are discerning about bettering and modifying direction by integrating the new engineerings ( Huckle, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Salomon ( 1989 ) , there are clear indicants from many developing states like Nigeria that the supply of relevant and appropriate package is a major constriction blockading wider application and use of digital acquisition in Nigeria third establishments. Schulmeister ( 2006 ) states that experience proved that the benefits of digital acquisition could non be to the full taken advantage of, outlooks could non be met and that engineering frequently was used to merely reenforce antique attacks to larning. Resnick ( 2002 ) criticizes that even though Information Communication Technology is applied in instruction, the attacks to learning and larning remain mostly unchanged. There is therefore non-availability of internet entree in some third establishments because of the recurrent cost of bandwidth. Inequality of entree to engineering is the challenge of digital divide bing among the pupil in Nigeria third establishment ( Omofaye, 2007 ) . Thus, some of them are unable to afford computing machines due to the comparative cost to the mean income of workers in the state ( Ajadi, Salawu, & A ; Adeoye, 2008 ) . The cost of accessing the cyberspace in Nigeria is still on the high side, some pupils find it a challenge to afford ( Arikpo, Osofisan, & A ; Usoro, 2009 )
Based on the aforementioned research background and the statement of the job, the intent of this survey is to research the use and consequence of digital acquisition on pupils in Lagos province Tertiary Institutions.
The undermentioned inquiries will steer this survey
What is the degree of consciousness of pupils on the handiness of Digital acquisition in Nigeria third establishment?
What is the position of the use of digital acquisition?
What are the challenges faced in the use of Digital larning on pupils?
Significance OF THE STUDY
The survey is important in that it will supply information about the current position of use of modern engineering in Nigerian secondary schools. It will besides supply baseline informations for future policy sing engineering preparation and the development of strategic programs aimed at promoting technology-based invention in teacher instruction plans. It is besides hoped that this survey will trip off more research surveies that will inform/encourage execution of new engineering in teacher instruction. This survey will be utile to inform instructors on how use digital acquisition to learn pupils which will turn to the demands of pupils with different larning manners and motive. It will offer great possible to transform and better pupil acquisition, battle and keeping and support pupil success which will assist institutional ends with possible benefits including improved keeping and clip nest eggs for teachers. Average instructors will profit as digital acquisition will assist make their first-class equals and take complex undertakings off their to-do lists, enabling them to concentrate on the parts of instruction at which they can stand out. Through engineering, they can besides obtain real-time informations and advice about how to assist each of their pupils win, salvaging clip and bettering public presentation. It will do it easy for instructors to personalise direction, which many mean instructors find hard or impossible to accomplish with whole schoolrooms of pupils with a broad array of demands. Besides instructors will progressively be able to learn more pupils in individual as digital acquisition replaces parts of direction in an individualised manner and provides time-saving pupil informations ; range pupils remotely via engineering ; and gaining control and portion their public presentations and methods widely through picture and smart package that individualizes acquisition. Even among first-class instructors, assorted people will boom in different functions.
By stressing the usage of simulation – games to learn mathematics, it is hoped that the survey will take to the
betterment of mathematics learning and larning in our secondary schools. The general hapless public presentation of
pupils in mathematics and their attitudes towards some facets of the topic are expected to be better.
With this survey, the research worker aims at exposing the instructors and pupils to the importance of utilizing simulation –
games to better the instruction and acquisition of mathematics.
Technology and digital acquisition can increase the ability to run into the demands of single pupils. Whether through the handiness of timely informations or the ability to link pupils with the content and activities that meet their acquisition manners and demands, engineering and digital acquisition provide chances for instructors to personalise larning for more pupils at any given clip.
There is no important difference between the challenges faced in the use of digital acquisition and pupils ‘ public presentation.
There is no important difference between the degree consciousness of pupils and handiness of digital acquisition in third Nigeria establishments.
There is no important difference between position and use of digital acquisition.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This survey will cover the instruction and acquisition activities in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions. The survey will restrict its work within Lagos State Tertiary Institutions because
DIGITAL LEARNING RESOURCES
In this survey, the term ‘digital learning resources ‘ refers to larning premises and platforms that include engineering enablers such as laptops, multimedia, CD-ROMs, and Internet resources. Digital learning resources can give pupils reliable every bit good as up-to-date information that is non needfully available in text edition. By and large, e-learning resources are utile as they represent a aggregation of cultural and scientific cognition accumulated over the old ages ( Yeo & A ; Tan, 2008 ) . Furthermore, this type of resource can be utile to pupils because it can further their acquisition and their critical thought, their ability to do connexions between different constructs, and bridge the spread between their theoretical and practical cognition ( Palmer, 2007 ) . Despite this, handiness of resources does non take to automatic acquisition betterment ; in fact, productive usage of resources can be hard to accomplish ( Bera & A ; Liu, 2006 ) .
Technologies and Methods of Teaching
There are groundss back uping the debut and usage of new engineerings in direction. The World Bank ( 2004 ) opined that ICTs should be considered within instruction for the intent of reforming course of study, reenforcing teaching/learning and to better propensity. The UN Secretary of State ( 2005 ) talking on the function of engineering in instruction said we must guarantee that Information and Communication Technologies ( ICTs ) are used to assist unlock the doors of instruction. As a consequence, Millennium Development Goals ( MDG ‘s ) came up with this policy “ to co-operate with the private sector, to do available the benefits of new engineerings, particularly ICTs to increase educational chances and unlock the door of instruction. As a consequence of this, new engineerings are being disseminated into educational establishments at a rapid rate. For the new engineerings to be efficaciously utilised, instructors at all degrees need non merely to be adept in the engineerings but must besides be good versed in its effectual integrating into their direction. The major country Nigeria could run into this outlook is the instructor ‘s readying in the methods category. It is in the methods category that the pupils can see their instructors patterning the usage or deficiency of usage of the engineering. The usage or deficiency of usage of the new engineerings may widely impact the pupils in future as respect whether to utilize them or non.
CHALLENGES OF DIGITAL LEARNING
The information on any topic which has been put on the web demand to be transformed to knowledge at some phase for it to be made utile. As suggested by Mehdi ( 2004 ) “ it can be highly easy and speedy to reassign information from one topographic point to another, it is frequently really hard and decelerate to reassign cognition from one individual to another ” .There have been devised several methods to ease the procedure of transition of information to knowledge, digital age has enabled fleet transportation of information and now strives to bring forth faster ways to change over it to knowledge. Teresa & A ; John ( 2007 ) talked about the assorted developments in digital acquisition like word-processing, interactive multimedia, Computer-mediated Communications, New Literacy Studies, Digital Archives and Information Literacy. The best effectual method for this transition ca n’t be defined as larning ability differs from individual to individual and different tools produce different consequences in persons. We normally tend to split these groups based on age, state or proficient background. The assorted demands for way of development in the field of digital acquisition have been felt since a long clip. We ca n’t anticipate every person to react in a similar mode to tools that are available for digital acquisition. Therefore different tools and learning methods are required for different groups of people which can be implemented with the aid of human computing machine interaction ( HCI ) as emphasized by Bee & A ; Laurel ( 2004 ) . Another issue is the consciousness to all new tools which can be helpful to a scholar which can besides be done with human computing machine interaction. Besides a affair of concern is that there still exists a little population who is wholly barren of digital larning even if they can afford it. This is mostly because of assorted myths and unknowingness. As marked by Guerra, Alfonzo, Suarez, Hernandez & A ; Milan ( 2007 ) learning AIDSs have moved from chalkboard to projector transparences and so to video projectors and PowerPoint. The instructors are normally non able to bring forth really effectual multimedia or other signifiers of digital acquisition. This is rather obvious as we ca n’t anticipate every instructor to be a multimedia expert. The Development of assorted tools was done so as to enable the scholars to get he knowledge easy. Another issue is the capital required for the spreading consciousness, carry oning workshops, supplying preparation and let go ofing new instruction tools and multimedia merchandises for acquisition.
Percept ON DIGITAL LEARNING
To successfully make digital learning plan, we need to guarantee that value truly is at that place and it is in concrete footings. That means we need to sell scholars on the true proposition that engagement will supply benefits worth the clip and attempt. The course of study needs to be the point of mention for making an effectual digital acquisition. Making so will excite critical motive and give the plan a opportunity to win ( Allen, 2003 ) . Bad digital larning perceptual experience may be due to miss of apprehension, deficiency of communicating, and deficiency of trust or conflicting dockets in appropriate usage engineering. Some end coaching and consciousness exercisings are likely needed to beef up people ‘s perceptual experience ( Allen, 2003 ) . It is of import to recognize that scholars are both emotional and rational ; and emotions have much consequence on people ‘s perceptual experience and what they do. In some digital acquisition surveies conducted in developing states, it was found that deficiency of vision and model in implementing digital larning lead to a failure of these digital acquisition undertakings ( Kizito & A ; Bijan, 2006 ; Pal, 2006 ) . Lack of both proficient and societal accomplishments required for execution contributes to the failure of some undertakings. If scholars can non utilize adaptative tools they might experience ashamed and this affects perceptual experience. When scholars feel ashamed and guilt it is because they are sent in environment in which they are non wholly pleased. The feeling will act upon their survey state of affairs, every bit good as the whole acquisition procedure and this consequence in negative feedback, which may cut down concentration and motive ( Ostlund, 2005 ) .
Digital Learning A Models
Horn & A ; Staker ( 2011 ) A offers A this A drumhead A of A assorted A digital A larning A theoretical accounts: A
A Face-Aaˆ?to-Aaˆ?Face A Driver A
This attack A retains A instructors to present A most A of their A course of study A in A a A traditional A brick-Aaˆ?and-Aaˆ?mortar A school puting. A The A instructor A deploys A online A larning A on A a case-Aaˆ?by-Aaˆ?case A footing A to A supplement A or A remediate, A frequently in the A back A of A the A schoolroom A or A in a engineering A lab. A
The common A characteristic A the A rotary motion A theoretical account A is A that A pupils A revolve A between A larning A on-line A in A a A one-Aaˆ?to-Aaˆ? one, self-Aaˆ?paced A environment A and A in A a A traditional A schoolroom. A The A face-Aaˆ?to-Aaˆ?face A teacher A normally A oversees A the A online A work. A
Plans with A a A flex A theoretical account A characteristic A an A online A platform A that A delivers A most A of A the A course of study. A Teachers A supply A on-Aaˆ?site A support A on A a A flexible, A as-Aaˆ?needed A footing A through A in-Aaˆ?person A tutoring A Sessionss A and A little A group A Sessionss. A Many A dropout-Aaˆ?recovery A and A credit-Aaˆ?recovery A blended A plans A fit A into A this A theoretical account. A
Online A Lab A
The online A lab A theoretical account A relies A on A an A online A platform A to A deliver A the A full A class, A but A in A a A brick-Aaˆ?and-Aaˆ?mortar A lab A environment. A Normally A these A plans A provide A on-line A instructors. A Paraprofessionals A supervise, A but A offer A small A content A expertness. A Often, A pupils A who A take part A in A an A online A lab A plan A besides A take A traditional A classs. A
The A most A common A version A of A blended A larning A is A the A self-Aaˆ?blend A theoretical account, A where A pupils A choose A to A take A one A or A more A classs A on-line A to A addendum A their A traditional A school ‘s A catalog. A The A online A acquisition A is A ever A remote, A which A distinguishes A it A from A the A online A lab A theoretical account, A but A the A traditional A acquisition A is A in A a A brick and howitzer A school. A All A auxiliary A online A schools A that A offer A a A La A menu A classs A to A single A pupils A facilitate A self-Aaˆ?blending. A
Online Driver A
The online A driver A theoretical account A involves an A online A platform A and A teacher A that A present all A course of study. A Students A work A remotely A for A the A most A portion, A Face-Aaˆ?to-Aaˆ?face A check-Aaˆ?ins A may A be A included. A Some A of A these A plans A offer A brick-Aaˆ? and-Aaˆ?mortar A constituents A as A good, A such A as extracurricular activities.
THE NEED FOR DIGITAL LEARNING IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
The universe is progressing at a rapid rate. Events have moved to the electronic phase with the computing machine at the Centre. This development has brought a batch of invention and revolution into learning and larning. The 3R ‘s ( reading, composing and arithmetic ) which forms the karyon of the old system of instruction has witnessed series of literacy reforms. The universe is now in the age of information engineering or computing machines age ; hence, there is a demand to maintain abreast of clip. One of the ways of accomplishing this is through the debut of computing machine instruction in our establishments of acquisition ( Ajibade, 2006 ) .