Energy has become the lifeblood of the modern economic systems, without which the universe will come to a practical deadlock ; it is cardinal to the betterment of life conditions around the universe. For developed states, dependable energy fuels the engineerings and services that enrich and extend life. Energy powers advanced computing machines, improved transit, expanded communications, up-to-date medical equipment and processs, and much more. For developing states, spread outing dependable and low-cost supplies of energy supports and even accelerates alterations that improve and salvage lives. Reliable energy agencies expanded industry, modern agribusiness, increased trade and improved transit. These are constructing blocks of economic growing that create the occupations that help people escape poorness and make better lives for their kids. [ Santiago Exxon ]
As the population of the universe additions and the economical state of affairs of developing states better, authoritiess are confronting the enormous challenge of run intoing the universe ‘s turning energy demands while cut downing the impact of energy usage on the environment. Today, approximately 1.5 billion people lack entree to electricity [ Santiago Exxon ] . Even more lack modern cookery and warming fuels.
It is expected that the planetary energy demand in 2030 will be about 35 per centum higher than in 2005, where growing will be led by rapid enlargement in non-OECD states such as China and India, where energy use will lift by about 65 per centum. At the same clip, demand will be peculiarly intense for electric power coevals, which will consist 40 per centum of planetary energy demand by 2030.
Figure 1. Global Energy Demand 2005-2030 by Type [ Santiago Exxon ]
Electricity will play such an of import function in the development of the universe traveling frontward, that any lethargy in the growing of the electricity industry could throw one state far behind other parts in industrial, economic and societal growing. It is a primary input factor on which the advancement of the economic system of a state depends. Full use of other input factors, such as work force, land including irrigation, and capital-related resources of an economic system depend upon the handiness of electricity [ Santiago Hindu ] . In other words, it is non merely a cardinal input factor but it besides plays a strategic function in using to the full the other resources towards the advancement of the economic system.
Figure 2. Global Energy Demand by Sector [ Santiago Exxon ]
In add-on, electricity has become an indispensable factor in bettering the societal conditions and public assistance of people. It is the most indispensable and critical ingredient for the growing of the state in the societal, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The function of power sector in economic development is so enormous that economic experts frequently set up a one-to-one correspondence between energy and economic development, that ‘s why it has been good recognized as ‘the industry of industries ‘ or the as the ‘mother industry ‘ [ Santiago Hindu ] .
Because of its importance, the electricity industry deserves precedence in development and necessary support for sustainability during the planning procedure of authoritiess.
As outlined in the old subdivision, energy has become important in the development of states around the universe, both economically and socially. The importance of energy in the future scheme of states has led to the creative activity of the term “ Energy Security ” , which is relates to the ability of each state to vouch the energy supply for its dwellers towards the hereafter. The World Energy Assessment study defines energy security as ‘the uninterrupted handiness of energy in varied signifiers in sufficient measures at sensible monetary values ‘ ( Adrian 2 ) .
Several considerations have motivated states to follow an Energy Security policy:
Energy must be supplied to all citizens, if non an unsustainable state of affairs could originate
Energy up to a certain degree ( ‘lifeline energy ‘ ) is a basic necessity and should be provided to everyone, whether they can pay for it or non, if non environmental debasement will happen
Effective demand ( demand backed by ability to pay at market determined monetary values ) must be met to the full, if non instability between rich and hapless will be created
Safe, convenient energy is more desirable than traditional fuels due to wellness impact
Energy should be available at all clip, if non high cost on economic system and damaging consequence to human wellbeing
If demand is non met at competitory monetary values, economic system will be affected
In the yesteryear, energy security was seen as the security of oil supplies, whereas more late OECD states have included the four following subjects in their energy policies ( Adrian 1 ) :
Diverseness of energy supplies
Diverseness of oil imports
Reduced dependance on Middle East
Low oil monetary value volatility
Apart from these, authoritiess are planing energy security programs that include the usage of renewable beginnings of energy chiefly because of two grounds:
The negative environmental effects that fossil fuels are doing the environment
The possibility of a oil and coal depletion in the approaching old ages
Harmonizing to the Energy Watch Group ‘s 2007 study, entire universe proved plus likely oil militias could be between 854 billion and 1,255 billion barrels. This sum could provide universe energy demand for 30 to 40 old ages if demand growing were to halt immediatly. On the other manus, harmonizing to the US EIA 2007 overview, at the current planetary sum energy ingestion rate, there is adequate coal to supply the full planet with all of its energy for 37 old ages, presuming 0 % growing in demand.
Even though the possibility of fossil fuels depletion could go true in the long tally, there is a much bigger job that we are already sing today: Global Warming. This term referes to the environmental impact caused by the inordinate combustion of fossil fuels. This consequence is believed, by several scientists, to be the consequence of a strengthening of the nursery consequence largely due to human-produced additions in atmospheric nursery gases.
Harmonizing to the International Plant Protection Convention ( IPPC ) , the temperatures increased sslowly from 1900 to 2000 and could increase exponentially between 2000 and 2100. A direct effect of this temperature changes is the runing glaciers and the sea degree rise ; fluctuations in the sea degree can hold really destructive effects and alteration perceptibly the land-sea boundary.
Beginning: Projections IPPC study 1995 and 2001
As a consequence of the current and future drawbacks that fossil fuels face, it is really of import that authoritiess include the usage of renewable beginnings of energy in their energy security scheme traveling frontward.
The present work intends to make a scheme that could vouch India ‘s energy security towards 2030 by utilizing renewable beginnings energy to carry through it. This scheme will suggest a class of action for India in the approaching old ages, finding what types of renewable energy would be economically, politically, socially and technologically executable.
The first portion of the papers analyzes the current socio-economic state of affairs in India, the current energy industry in footings of supply and demand, the energy mentality towards 2030, the energy resources in the state and the different chances and jobs in the hereafter of energy in India. The 2nd portion of the papers will develop a scheme of renewable energy beginnings based on the relevant findings of the first portion.
India is one of the four BRIC states, which is a group acronym that refers to the states of Brazil, Rusia, Indian and China that are expected to go the four most dominant economic systems by the twelvemonth 2050 as they encompass over 25 % of the universe ‘s land coverage and 40 % of the universe ‘s population and keep a combined GDP ( PPP ) of 15.435 trillion dollars [ REFERENCE ] . These four states are among the biggest and fastest turning emerging markets.
With a population of around 1.1 billion, India is the universe ‘s 2nd most thickly settled state and ranks fifth in the universe in footings of primary energy ingestion, accounting for about 3.5 per cent of the universe ‘s commercial energy demand. With a GDP growing rate of around 8 % , India is presently one of the fastest turning economic systems of the universe. Even by 2001, around 44 % of house-holds did non hold entree to electricity ( Census of India, 2001 ) . The state continues to confront electricity deficits, with an overall power deficit of 8.4 % and a top outing power deficit of 12.3 % in 2005/06. Despite gradual urbanisation, around 72 % of the state ‘s population resided in rural countries in 2001.
Energy demands of several families, particularly those in the rural countries, continue to be met chiefly by inefficient traditional energy signifiers like fuel wood, harvest residue, and carnal waste. These fuels are non merely inconvenient to utilize and do indoor air pollution, but besides adversely affect the wellness of adult females and kids who are exposed to the usage of these fuels.
Especifically, by 2030 India is expected to go the 3rd largest planetary energy consumer, catching Japan and Russia, due to population growing and lifting income degrees ( Madan ) . At the same clip, dependance on imported energy increased from 17.85 % of Entire Primary Commercial Energy Supply ( TPCES ) in 1991 to about 30 % in 2004-05. Oil imports really accounted for 72 % of entire oil ingestion in 04-05. Almost three quarters of this proceeded from 5 states merely, all located in parts considered reasonably unstable ( Expert Committee, 2005 ) . Coal and gas imports are besides likely to increase over clip, as domestic coal production is unable to provide demand and coal supplies are likely to run out in 40 old ages.
The state ‘s demands of fossil fuels are expected to achieve 337 to 462 Mt of oil, 99 to 184 Mtoe of gas and 602 to 954 Mtoe of coal ( Integrated Energy Policy 2006 ) . The International Energy Association undertakings that planetary dodo fuel supplies will increase by merely 1.7 % , intending India ‘s portion in 2030 would run from 5.8 % to 8 % for oil, 2.4 % to 4.5 % for natural gas, and 16.7 % to 26.5 % for coal ( see Figure 1 ) .
Figure 3. Projections for India originate from the Planning Commission presuming a GDP growing rate of 8 % , and the universe projections are 2030 Numberss from IEA [ REFERENCE ]
Additional to the big energy demand that India has, the state faces other political, market and proficient hazards that could endanger its way towards a successful energy security plan. First, wars, work stoppages or political turbulences in the exportation states could drastically cut down oil supplies for India. Second, sudden additions in oil monetary values may do rising prices, slow economic system and impose adversity on the Indian population. Last, proficient breaks or accidents could interrupt the supply of energy.
The diverse challenges that India faces towards the securement of their energy demands, every bit good as the of import function that the state represents in the universe ‘s energy ingestion in the hereafter are some of the grounds that have encouraged us to set about the present work.
The development of a thorough analysis to find the chief jobs in the current policy and proviso of energy in India, every bit good as a elaborate scheme to develop renewable energy beginnings to fulfill the future demand of energy for the state, are necessary to vouch the uninterrupted public assistance of the state ‘s growing and life quality of its dwellers.
Chapter II: State Review
2.1. General Mentality
The Republic of India is a located in South Asia, bounded by the Indian Ocean on the South, the Arabian Sea on the West, and the Bay of Bengal on the E ; and it is bordered by Pakistan to the West. It is the seventh-largest state by geographical country, the second-most thickly settled state with over 1.18 billion people, and the most thickly settled democracy in the universe.
In footings of geographics, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometers and is place to the Himalayas, the planet ‘s highest mountains, which now abut India in the North and the north-east. Major Himalayan-origin rivers that well flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. India ‘s clime is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian Katabatic air current from blowing in, maintaining the majority of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a important function in pulling the moisture-laden.
The Indian economic system is the universe ‘s 11th largest economic system by nominal GDP and the 4th largest by buying power para. Since the debut of market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest turning major economic systems in the universe ; nevertheless, the state continues to confront several poorness, illiteracy, corruptness and public wellness related challenges. India is classified as a freshly industrialised state and is one of the four BRIC nations. It is a atomic arms province and has the third-largest standing armed force in the universe, while its military outgo ranks tenth in the universe. India is a regional power in South Asia.
India is federation with a parliamentary signifier of authorities, governed under the Constitution of India. It is a constitutional democracy and representative democracy, “ in which bulk regulation is tempered by minority rights protected by jurisprudence. ” It has operated under a multi-party system for most of its history. For most of the old ages since independency, the federal authorities has been led by the Indian National Congress ( INC ) . Politicss in the provinces have been dominated by national parties like the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP ) and assorted regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, excluding two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary bulk.
Current population, vs universe
Expected Population, vs universe
2.2.1. Population Density
rural V urban
map of population denseness and expected
The economic system of India is the 11HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_ ( nominal ) ” thHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_ ( nominal ) ” largest economic system in the universe by nominal GDP ( Gross Domestic Product ) with 3,75 trillion $ . This fact can be misdirecting in footings of dwellers ‘ wealth since the GDP per capita ( PPP ) is merely 3,100 $ ; ranking in the 163th place out of 227 states. However, India is an emerging economic power with a really big sum of homo and natural resources. The hereafter of the state ‘s economic system is predicted more than auspicious. Economists expect that India ‘s economic system will be among the taking 1s, while harmonizing to the BRIC study ( published by Goldman Sachs ) , India will be the 2nd largest economic system behind China by 2043 [ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_India ] . Harmonizing to these anticipations, the one-year income per capital will follow a clear upward tendency for the undermentioned old ages, as depicted below:
GDP – per capita ( PPP )
Beginning: The World Factbook
Annual income per capita ( ? )
Beginning: ( inquire Julien )
Today India is a state with a developing unfastened market economic system ; nevertheless the marks of its past stiff policies still exist. This development began in the early 1990s when controls on foreign trade and investing became more flexible and helped the state speed up its growing. Since 1997 there has been a 7 % one-year growing owing economic liberalisation.
As mentioned above, India ‘s economic system includes village agriculture every bit good as modern farming along with handcrafts, many modern industries and a big figure of services. Even though more than half of the work force is occupied with agribusiness, services are the major beginning of its economic growing, which is merely 1/3 of its labour, force but is accountable for more than half of India ‘s end product. India has become a major exporter of information engineering services and package due to its educated English talking population. In 2009 its one-year GDP fell to 6.5 % because of an industrial lag in 2008, which was followed by the planetary fiscal crisis. Nevertheless, India still retained the 2nd highest growing in the universe among the major economic systems. The planetary fiscal crisis did non hold a terrible impact on India ‘s growing because of the cautious banking policies and its low dependance on exports. In 2008 due to funding plan for fuel and fertilisers along with a debt release plan for husbandmans and a occupation warrant plan for rural workers India ‘s financial shortage increased well.
India has still to run into some long-run challenges which include its extended poorness, the limited employment chances and its deficiency of basic and higher instruction. India ‘s turning population over the old ages will decline the societal economic and environmental jobs it faces.
2.4.1. Current and Future Demand
In the recent old ages, India ‘s energy ingestion has been increasing at one of the fastest rates in the universe due to population growing and economic development. Primary commercial energy demand grew at the rate of six per cent between 1981 and 2001 ( Planing Commission 2002 ) . India ranks fifth in the universe in footings of primary energy ingestion [ J1 ] , accounting for approximately 3.5 % of the universe commercial energy demand in the twelvemonth 2003.
In malice of the low per capita energy ingestion degrees, and the fact that a big subdivision of population does non even hold entree to energy signifiers of equal quality and measure, India ‘s entire primary energy supply has increased from around 150 mtoe in 1970 to 438 mtoe in 2001/02. Furthermore, the portion of non-commercial energy has decreased from 59 % in 1970 to 32 % in 2001, with families switching to the cleansing agent and efficient commercial energy.
Assorted estimations indicate that India would necessitate to increase its primary energy supply by at least 3 to 4 times and its electricity coevals capac-ity by 5 to 6 times of the 2003/04 degrees, by the twelvemonth 2031. The analysis based on the MARKAL theoretical account, indicates that under a 8 % GDP growing sce-nario with current programs and policies of the Government, commercial energy demands would in-crease to 2108 mtoe by 2031/32. [ J3 ]
Beginning: [ J3 ]
By 2031, TERI ( The Energy and Resources Institute ) estimates indicate a dependence of 78 % for coal ( over a billion metric tons ) , 93 % for oil ( ~ 700 million metric tons ) and 67 % for gas ( ~ 93 BCM ) with current estimations of future handiness of autochthonal energy.
2.4.2. Use by Sector
On the demand side, the industrial sector continues to stay the largest consumer, accounting for more than 40 % of the entire commercial energy, followed by the conveyance sector. [ J3 ]
Beginning: [ J3 ]
2.4.3. Consumption by Type of Source
The primary mix of India ‘s energy ingestion is about 56 % coal, 33 % oil, 8 % natural gas, with atomic and hydropower combined taking a 3 % portion.
Beginning: Teri 2000-2001
Coal: Coal production increased by 2.6 % in 2001 from the old twelvemonth, making 161 million toe, or 343 million metric tons. While India exports a little sum of coal to nearby states, it has evolved into a important importer of coal as economic growing and domestic supply constriction have stimulated Indian demand for imported coal. India imported 18 million metric tons in 1999, largely coking coal, or 6 % of its coal demands.
Oil: Oil production has been reasonably stable since 1995. Production in 2001 was 36 million metric tons, or 782,000 barrels per twenty-four hours. India imports about 1.3 million barrels of rough oil per twenty-four hours, or about two tierces of its petroleum oil demands.
Natural Gas: Natural gas represents a turning constituent of the primary energy mix. In 2001, gas production reached 26 bcmor 23 million toe.
Hydro and Nuclear: Hydropower and atomic have been lending with a minority portion of the energy mix ( up to 4 % ) .
Energy Conversion: The crude oil merchandise supply has seen a encouragement since 1999 with new refinery capacity ( 10 million metric tons by terminal of 2002 ) added to the system.
Sum installed power coevals capacity is 100GW, 71 % of which is generated by coal, 25 % from hydro, 3 % from atomic and 1 % from air current. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Harmonizing to World Resources Institute ( WRI ) , India ‘s electricity grid has the highest transmittal and distribution losingss in the universe – a humongous 27 % . Numbers published by assorted Indian authorities bureaus put that figure at 30 % , 40 % and greater than 40 % . This is attributed to proficient losingss ( grid ‘s inefficiencies ) and larceny.
It has been estimated that around 25,000 megawatts ( MW ) of capacity can be created through energy efficiency in the electricity sector entirely, with the maximal possible being seen in the agribusiness and industrial sectors.
Therefore it is of import to look into the assorted facets that involve these inefficiencies and larcenies and follow steps to forestall them.
Bing a state with extremely increasing energy demands, India is presently based on conventional resources such as coal, oil and natural for power production. Coal is the primary non-renewable resource of energy in India. The state has some of the largest militias of coal in the universe ( about 209 billion tones of the known geological militias in 1999 ) [ Yiannis 6 ] . The major coal militias are located in West Bengal, Orissa, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar, as it is depicted in the map:
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mapsofindia.com
In footings of oil resources India is hapless and imports oil to run into its energy demands. “ Oil and Gas ” diary provinces that, the state had about 5.6 billion barrels of proved oil militias on January 2010 [ Yiannis 5 ] . This is the 2nd largest sum in the Asia part behind China. Harmonizing to the same diary India had about 38 trillion three-dimensional pess ( Tcf ) of proved natural gas militias at the same clip. The most of India ‘s natural gas production comes from the western offshore parts. The onshore Fieldss in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat provinces are besides major beginnings of gas production.
The term “ Renewable resources ” refers to those resources that get replaced by natural procedures at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of ingestion by human [ Wikipedia ] . India ‘s geographic location in the universe represents a great advantage for the development of different renewable energy beginnings. For case, energy engineerings like biomass, water-hydro, air current and solar nowadays the greatest potency.
In footings of solar the state has the best resources worldwide since it is the cheery state of the universe [ 1 ] , with 260-300 clear cheery yearss per twelvemonth. It has besides one-year mean temperature runing from 25 to 27.5 A°C [ 1 ] . As shown in the map, the warmest topographic points of India are located in the south-east seashore ensuing in a strong solar potency.
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mapsofindia.com
The mean strength of solar radiation received on India is 200 MW/km2 [ 2 ] . Taking under consideration the land country of the state is 3,287,000A km2 from which merely the 410,907 km2 can theoretically be used for solar energy installings [ 2 ] , this leads to a sum of 8,218,140 MW. This sum of power can be used for assorted applications, from solar thermic power workss down to domestic coevals such as solar H2O warmer.
Equally far as wind power is concerned India is the 5th largest manufacturer in the universe with entire power of 11,806 MW [ 3 ] . The air current power development started on 1990 and till today it follows a singular growing. In footings of air current resources and weave possible, India has strong monsoons. In summer clip cool, humid south-west air moves from the ocean towards the land, whereas in winter cool, dry air with north-east way moves the other manner around. The air current power denseness map of India given below, presents the topographic points with the strongest air current potency in the state.
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cwet.tn.nic.in/html/departments_wpdmap.html #
The provinces of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan have amongst others really strong air current potency and the lasting installing in air current farms are shown in the tabular array [ 4 ] :
Gross Potential ( MW )
Entire Capacity ( MW )
Beginning: Indian Wind Energy Association ( As of March 2010 ) .
Hydropower is another signifier of non-conventional energy in which India has plentifulness available resources and therefore has developed to a great extent. Hydropower is chiefly exploited through dikes, reservoirs and hydroelectric power workss, which take advantage of the river and rainfall Waterss. As it is depicted in the one-year rainfall map below, the north-eastern portion of India which includes the parts Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, and besides on the West seashore between Mumbai and Mahe are those which receive the dominant sum of rain annually. Some of the primary hydroelectric power workss utilized by India are Bihar, Punjab, Uttaranchal, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Gujarat. Sing the sum of rainfall annually in the cardinal and South of Bangalore it is apparent that the rainfalls occur from May to November.
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mapsofindia.com
During these showery seasons hydro energy could be utilized. Amongst others, Small hydro ( 2 MW-30 MW ) is the most usual renewable energy beginning for energy production. In India hydro is classified into 4 other classs ( apart from Small ) , Pico ( 1 kW-10 kilowatt ) , Micro ( 10 kW-100 kilowatt ) , Mini ( 100 KW-2 MW ) .
Last but non least biomass has ever been an indispensable renewable beginning in India. Bing an agricultural state, it has immense measure of biomass. Almost 32 % of the primary energy usage is produced by treating stuffs from agricultural, industrial and forest operations [ 2 ] . More specifically mush, wood, paper and manure in farm animal residues along with sugar cane bagasse are amongst others the most popular and available resources for bring forthing energy in India. The state has a potency of 19,500 MW but merely 554 MW are presently installed whereas another 536 MW are under building [ 1 ] .
Presently installed ( MW )
Potential ( MW )
Bagasse by sugar
Beginning: Global Energy Network Institute ( GENI Sustainable )
To give an overview of the presently installed power from renewable beginnings and their possible harmonizing to the resources of the state, are depicted in the undermentioned tabular array:
Presently Installed ( MW )
Potential ( MW )
Energy from waste
Solar PV power
Biomass / cogenerations
Beginning: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy ( MNRE ) , March 2009
Even though India has a great sum of resources to develop renewable energy towards the possible capacity, there are besides some restrictions that constrain this potency. Some of these include proficient restrictions, thecountry ‘s economic system, the fiscal state of affairs of the dwellers and the societal accept of the proposed option beginnings for bring forthing power are some of import barriers. Particularly the fact that India has a great sum of people populating under poorness is a hinder even to the domestic development of renewable engineerings such as little PV systems applied to single houses.
Given the black current energy scenario and the future chances, the Government of India has put in topographic point several steps that it hopes would take to an moderation of the deficits in the state and a more even distribution of entree to energy. Some cardinal enterprises along these lines are listed below:
Structural and Regulative Reforms: The oil and gas sector was one of the first sectors in which the Government tried to present a much higher degree of liberty by leting the populace sector enterprises to work as corporate entities with their ain Boardss of Directors that would pull off the companies at an arm ‘s length distance from the Government. Private Sector participa-tion in refineries was besides introduced as a consequence of which the private sector organic structure has a portion of about 30 % in India ‘s refinement capacities today.
Energy Conservation Act in 2001 and the Electricity Act in 2003: In the instance of power sector, reforms were introduced in the early 1990 ‘s and, through a procedure of acquisition, India has eventually reached a phase where it has enacted the Energy Conservation Act in 2001 and the Electricity Act in 2003. The Energy Conservation Act requires the constitution of a Bureau of Energy Efficiency as a deemed statutory independent organic structure that would work towards promoting energy efficiency in the state. The Electricity Act 2003 requires the functional unbundling of former vertically incorporate province electricity boards and puts in lace regula-tory committees both at the federal and province degree.
Enhanced Private Sector Participation: Private sector involvement in the oil and gas sector has built up and much more significantly than in the instance of electricity sector because it got an early start and because deformations in the instance of these sec-tors were non terrible as in the instance of electricity.
Private Sector Participation in Electricity Sector: Despite several attempts towards promoting private sector engagement in electricity coevals and distribution the response from the private sector has been grossly unequal. This has mostly been because of the inability of the distribution concern to bring forth equal grosss to supply an equal return or so comfort that the services would be paid for. Once once more, larning from the past experiences and the demand to rapidly add important capacities, the Government of India launched the Ultra Mega Power Project ( UMPP ) strategy that identified seven sites for puting up large-scale power workss with each site holding a capacity of 4000 MW.
Under a strategy launched by the Government called the Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana ( RGGVY ) , the Government is easing the extension of electricity substructure to rural countries through a high capi-tal subsidy but linked to the constitution of franchise distribution agreement at the local degree. [ 4 ]
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