Similarly harmonizing to Moloi et Al. ( as cited in Mtika & A ; Gates, 2010 ) , group work is one of the schemes that can be utile in student-centered attacks. It does non merely assist pupils to discourse and portion thoughts with each other, but it besides helps to better pupils ‘ apprehension of some constructs and develop their communicating accomplishments. In the student-centered schoolroom, the instructor has to believe of pupils ‘ demands and the schoolroom is considered as a topographic point where pupils work together, in groups and as persons by promoting them to take portion in the acquisition procedure all the clip ( Jones, 2007 ) . In the student-centered schoolroom, the instructor should cognize about their pupils ‘ background. Teachers should see what they may cognize or make non cognize about their pupils because it helps to make the schoolroom conditions that are antiphonal to the larning demands of the pupils ( Hodson, 2002 ) . Furthermore, in societal constructivist classrooms the relationship between instructor and pupils are much more dynamically involved, so that the instructor ‘s function is much more demanding to let and actively promote acknowledgment, rating, and Reconstruction ( Gunstone and Northfield every bit cited in Hand et al. , 1997 ) .
A A A A A The size for effectual student-centered schoolrooms can be organized into big group ( category with 25-30 pupils ) , average size ( 5-8 pupils ) , little group ( 3-5 pupils ) , pair group ( 2 pupils ) and a instructor and a pupil ( merely in particular status ) ( MoEYS, 2002a ) . Furthermore, schoolroom agreements, particularly classroom infinite and resources like chairs and tabular arraies for big group activities are besides of import because appropriate resources helps to back up the effectivity and efficiency of direction to the pupils.
2. 4 Definition of the Student-Centered Approaches to Learning
A A A A A A The footings “ student-centered attacks ” A and “ learner-centered attacks ” A to larning are the same and whilst some articles used the term student-centered attacks and other articles used the term learner-centered attacks, the two footings were used interchangeably. Both footings focus on the demands of pupils who as scholars are actively involved in the acquisition procedure ( Utecht, 2003 ) . The term “ student-centered attacks ” is used in this survey because this term is officially applied in Kampuchean course of study and ministry educational literature. Furthermore, the student-centered attacks are broader for illustration, a pupil can be defined as scholar, but a scholar may non be defined as pupil. For illustration, a adult male wants to cognize about the educational jurisprudence in Cambodia, so the adult male can travel to library or seek in the MoEYS web site to read and larn about the jurisprudence. The adult male therefore is non a pupil, but he is a scholar.
A A A A A A The student-centered attacks to larning are defined as learning methodological analysiss associated with an attack to larning where pupils are the chief characters in the acquisition procedure, and actively larn in a socially synergistic manner ( Brush & A ; Saye, 2000 ) . The student-centered attacks are designed to help pupils to larn best from meaningful life experiences, societal interactions, and scientific experimentation ( Pedersen & A ; Liu, 2003 ) .
A A A A A A The student-centered attacks to larning focal point on single pupil ‘s demands and growing, because these attacks are intended to develop the potency of every single pupil and promote their personal growing and involvements ( Morris, 1996 ) . The student-centered attacks are besides considered effectual options to the traditional teacher-centered attacks. Similarly harmonizing to Courtney ( 2008 ) , it looks really different from the traditional didactic instruction methods that are widely applied in Cambodia. These traditional instruction methods depend on the direct direction of the instructor and verbal and written repeat with small accent on understanding but strong accent on memory and callback. Kember ( as cited in O’Neill & A ; McMahon, 2005 ) and Hirumi ( 2002 ) stated the student-centered attacks are in contrast to the traditional teacher-centered attacks. In the teacher-centered attacks, instructors are at the centre of the acquisition and learning procedure and supply direction to pupils ; the pupils are the empty vass into which the instructor pours their cognition. This position contrasts aggressively to that of constructivist theory where we see that pupils are cardinal to the acquisition procedure, they are non viewed as empty vass but instead actively take part in doing cognition by believing and work outing jobs for themselves, and developing their self-pride that is indispensable for larning and decision-making throughout life ( American Psychological Association, 1993 ; Hirumi, 2002 ; MoEYS, 2005 ) .
A A A A A A The nucleus rule of the student-centered acquisition attacks is that pupils have different abilities, demands, and involvements for how they learn, and they construct cognition and significance and learn in different ways ( Brady, 2006 ; Murdoch & A ; Wilson, 2008 ; Hirumi, 2002 ) . The American Psychological Association ( 1993 ) stated that pupils have assorted capablenesss and involvements for acquisition. “ Persons are born with and develop alone capablenesss and endowments and have acquired through acquisition and societal socialization different penchants for how they like to larn and the gait at which they learn ” ( American Psychological Association, 1993, p. 9 ) . Harmonizing to Meyer & A ; Jones ( as cited in Hirumi, 2002 ) , in the category pupils talk, listen, write, read, and reflect on content, thoughts, issues, and concerns in order to build their ain significance. “ In student-centered environments, scholars are given direct entree to the knowledge-base and work separately and in little groups to work out reliable jobs ( Hirumi, 2002, p. 506 ) . Similarly, harmonizing to Jones ( 2007 ) , a student-centered category is a topographic point where pupils ‘ demands are considered, as a group and as persons, and pupils are encouraged to take part in the acquisition procedure all the clip. At different times, pupils may work entirely, in braces, or in groups.
A A A A A A As a theory of epistemology, constructivism proposes that pupils bring their existing experiences and beliefs, every bit good as universe positions and their cultural histories, into the acquisition procedure when they internally build cognition by interacting with the environment ( Yilmaz, 2008 ) . Constructivism is considered as a procedure that pupils actively construct their cognition upon cognition that they already have ( Motschnig-Pitrik & A ; Holzinger, 2002 ) . Social constructivist, Vygotsky believed that “ acquisition is a societal procedure in which scholars developed understanding through interaction with the environment around them ” ( Brush & A ; Saye, 2000, p. 5 ) . Harmonizing to Jonassen ; Duffy & A ; Jonassen ( as cited in Brush & A ; Saye, 2000 ) , the demand for more student-centered acquisition activities have been promoted by the protagonists of the constructivist epistemology of acquisition.
A A A A A A In short, the cardinal features of the student-centered attacks to larning stress students’A anterior cognition and experience, developing Bloom Taxonomy believing accomplishments, particularly critical thought and job resolution, researching single acquisition demands and involvements, advancing active pupil engagement, and developing motive for life-long acquisition ( American Psychological Association, 1993 ; Brush & A ; Saye, 2000 ; Hirumi, 2002 ; Mtika & A ; Gates, 2010 ) . However, there is no individual scheme that helps pupils to hold effectual larning all the clip and there is no learning scheme that is better than others in every circumstance. Each learning scheme has its strength and failing, so instructors need to do determinations and chose instruction schemes that help their pupils to accomplish the acquisition results ( Killen, 2003 ) . Similarly harmonizing to Hab & A ; Em ( 2003 ) , to take and efficaciously use a instruction scheme the instructor has to judge many times because choosing an appropriate instruction scheme is based on the determination whether we provide knowledge to pupils through direct direction ( teacher-centered attacks ) or indirect facilitation ( student-centered attacks ) .
2. 5 Student-Centered Learning as Adopted by the Kampuchean Ministry of Education
A A A A A A 2.5.1 Vision of acquisition and instruction
A A A A A A Learning has many manners such as acquisition by seeing, listening, composing, reading, watching telecasting, self-experiment, pattern, believing, playing games, analyze circuits and so on. These manners of larning supply cognition to the scholars. However different larning can hold different consequence. Learners may bring forth different larning results with a different acquisition manner to another pupil ( MoEYS, 2002b ) . For illustration, those who learn by listening will bury all or retrieve a small after several yearss. Those who merely stand and see people swimming can non swim, but if they learn to swim themselves, they can swim efficaciously. Peoples hence can make something when they involve themselves. Harmonizing to Confucianism, it is believed that “ If you tell me, I will bury. If you show me, I may retrieve. But if you involve me, I can make and understand ” ( MoEYS, 2008 ) .
A A A A A A The Kampuchean authorities ‘s vision of the intents for acquisition and instruction functions has bit by bit changed between societies and from one a period of clip to another ( MoEYS, 2002a ) . Previous learning methods considered effectual and appropriate was when instructors were considered to be the cognition suppliers. Teachers provided cognition and told pupils, and pupils listened to instructors and followed instructors without developing their ain thoughts or understanding. In this context instructors had the power because they had the cognition that pupils needed to be able to come on through the instruction system. This vision was later officially abandoned because the acquisition results were considered unsuitable to both the demands of the state for skilled minds and they compared ill to the wider international educational context.
A A A A A A In the undermentioned period, another new learning method was integrated called ‘question and reply ‘ method. The instructor raised inquiries and the pupils answered. This method was adopted in the belief that it would convey better consequences for pupils. The inquiry and reply method was subsequently changed and reformed to what was known as the ‘active method ‘because this method required much relationship between instructor and pupils. For the last vision, it was believed that creative activity merely relationship between instructor and pupils was non plenty. To hold better consequence for pupils, relationship between pupils and pupils must be created in the instruction and acquisition procedure. Teachers have to fix pupils to work in groups, so pupils can interchange their thoughts, work hand in glove, and assist each other in larning. This last vision is a really of import portion of student-centered attacks ( Hab & A ; Em, 2003 ; Inspector, 2002 ; Ung, 2008 ) . These attacks to larning and learning shifted the power repositing of the instructor from one who held all the cognition to a more equal one where instructors spouse with, sometimes lead, their pupils into new understanding and cognition.
A A A A A A 2.5.2 Principle and theory
A A A A A A Theories that are applied and relevant to learning and larning in the current Kampuchean school system are:
Learning is making new cognition
Learning is interchanging experience ( Inspector, 2002 )
A A A A A A The theories of larning above are besides clearly identifiable as constructs of constructivism. Although constructivism is non a theory of acquisition, the rules have been applied by many pedagogues in instruction and acquisition, particularly, but non merely, in scientific discipline instruction ( Han et al. , 1997 ; Yilmaz, 2008 ) . Constructivism emphasizes that cognition and significance are constructed by the human head ; in consequence scholars create links between their bing cognition and new experience and do new cognition constructions and significance ( Yilmaz, 2008 ) .
A A A A A A The function of instructors and pupils are changed by the acceptance of the student-centered attacks to larning. Students are given greater duty for their acquisition and the instructors ‘ functions change where they become more coordinators or facilitators of the acquisition experiences. Students are encouraged to research the cognition by themselves and with other scholars and the instructors help the acquisition procedure by demoing pupils waies of cognition. In this new function in the schoolroom, the instructors become portion of the acquisition procedure and acts as a usher and a resource for the pupils ( Utecht, 2003 ) . Furthermore, the importance of school is to supply multiple chances to pupils to make cognition and understanding by themselves through research, existent experience and work outing jobs.