Why does tissue damage occur in acute rejection after organ transplantation?
Question 9 options:
Th1 cells release cytokines that activate infiltrating macrophages, and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells directly attack the endothelial cells of the transplanted tissue.
Circulating immune complexes are deposited in the endothelial cells of transplanted tissue, where the complement cascade lyses tissue.
Receptors on natural killer (NK) cells recognize antigens on the cell surface of the transplanted tissue, which releases lysosomal enzymes that destroy tissue.
Antibodies coat the surface of the transplanted tissue to which mast cells bind and liberate preformed chemical mediators that destroy tissue.
Oncogenes are genes that are capable of:
Question 10 options:
Undergoing mutation that directs the synthesis of proteins to accelerate the rate of tissue proliferation
Directing synthesis of proteins to regulate growth and to provide necessary replacement of tissue
Encoding proteins that negatively regulate the synthesis of proteins to slow or halt the replacement of tissue
Undergoing mutation that directs malignant tissue toward blood vessels and lymph nodes for metastasis
After the baroreceptor reflex is stimulated, the resulting impulse is transmitted from the carotid artery by which sequence of events?
Question 11 options:
From the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase sympathetic activity and to decrease parasympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the hypothalamus to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
Regarding the endothelium, what is the difference between healthy vessel walls and those that promote clot formation?
Question 12 options:
Inflammation and roughening of the endothelium of the artery
Hypertrophy and vasoconstriction of the endothelium of the artery
Excessive clot formation and lipid accumulation in the endothelium of the artery
Evidence of age-related changes that weaken the endothelium of the artery
What is the expected electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern when a thrombus in a coronary artery permanently lodges in the vessel and the infarction extends through the myocardium from the endocardium to the epicardium?
Question 13 options:
Prolonged QT interval
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
ST depression myocardial infarction (STDMI)
Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI)
A patient reports sudden onset of severe chest pain that radiates to the back and worsens with respiratory movement and when the patient is lying down. These clinical manifestations describe:
Question 14 options:
Myocardial infarction (MI)