According to John Holland, a person can be classified into one of six categories based on their vocation or educational interests or by scores obtained on such instruments as the Vocational Preference Inventory, the Strong Interest inventory, or the Self-Directed Search. The six basic interest groups of the Strong Interest Inventory are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional. These indicate which interest groups and personality types are most common among people who find success or contentment in a particular field.
Briefly, each of the categories includes information that explains the combination of characteristics that result in certain attitudes and attributes: Realistic. People with realistic interests often enjoy creating things using their hands. Investigative. Investigative interests are demonstrated when a person likes to analyze, solve problems, and do research. Artistic. These people are usually unconventional, creative, expressive and intense. Social.
People expressing social interests work best with people rather than just tools, machines or concepts. Enterprising. People who are classified as enterprising find it their second nature to be able to lead and persuade others. Conventional. Those who have a high degree of conventional interests are generally stable, dependable and thorough. Figure 1: Holland’s Code (The Career Key, 2007, par. 6) As shown in Figure 1, each personality type has to be in a compatible work environment so that the individual will be come successful or satisfied.
These results of the tests mentioned, otherwise known as the Holland Code, are keyed to virtually any work field available. Themes apply to both the person and work characteristics; they provide an appraisal to fit between the person and the work environment. I find the theory very realistic and practical in the work place because people who share the same interests do tend to work better together than those with different attitudes toward their jobs.
The more interested an individual in his work is, the more passionate he usually becomes. When people who share the same values and attitudes come together, a project is usually successful because most would prefer to have the work done in a certain way instead of ensuing arguments because of the different interests within the group. The hardships faced are mere challenges because of the contentment that the employees feel while doing something they feel is natural or complete interest to them.
2. Donald Super’s Theory on Career Development explains that as people mature in life, so do they undergo certain stages in career growth. The six life roles refer to child, student, leisurite, citizen, worker, and homemaker (author’s last name, year, p. 52). These more or less coincide with the person’s growth. The Child role is something we all must go through because of the development of our bodies physically and mentally.
Although one may argue that we are forever our parents’ children, what Super actually means is that it is the stage wherein we are building our concept of self. The student life role usually comes during the teenage years until the early twenties wherein in we are trying to develop skills, talents and build up the concept of what we would want to pursue for a career. Taking the role of a leisurite is the life role wherein one may be being pulled towards a certain career choice but is still not decided if it is the right one.
The citizen and worker life roles encompass the time during our first jobs and the series of career moves as we work to establish ourselves in the career we are already beginning to have chosen. Once a person gets married, the individual also has to attain the role of spouse while handling all the demands of his career path. As homemaker, one needs to take care of the children. Most people go through these life roles but often enough, these roles are continuously happening throughout a normal life cycle.
Looking back, I can see the objectives and how each cycle fits into a particular area of one’s life. During the growth and development years which covers pre-K through middle school I found that I explored many different avenues, though school, sports, friends and then venturing into the work force really without having any idea what was in store for me. As the transfer from student to citizen came into play I found that I still wasn’t sure what I actually wanted to do when I grew up. I then was married, with children and no further education other than High School.
after a divorce I went back to becoming the student again and am really still there, so with that said I have to completely agree with one of my opening statements that “that we cycle and recycle throughout our life p as we adapt to changes in ourselves as well as to the trends in the work place. I seem to continue to cycle and recycle. 3. As the employer, I don’t use any of these programs. After the self evaluations that we have completed the one that I prefer over the others is the Holland Assessment.
Being an entrepreneur, I value the dedication of my workers to the task at hand. With the Holland Assessment, I can find out if my employees share the same interests so that they can work together as a team with common attitudes that would take us all to success. I found that to be very informative in constructing an environment in which is successful as well as harmonious. Over the last 18 years, there have been times in which I would actually hate going to work due to the environment and the tension which evolved.
I think this would be a very beneficial in new employment situations, by determining what interest and how the individual would fit in, if at all. Chaper 3 1. In the Social Learning Theory, career decisions are made based on his or her social learning, environmental events, genetic influences and learning experiences (Sharma, 2005, par. 16). Therefore, people are predisposed to choose a certain job if they were able to handle similar responsibilities in the past or a role model supports the idealism of a job or if someone told them the advantages of a certain employment opportunity.
It also goes to say that people will avoid a job when their past shows they have failed in their attempts at a similar type of activity or a role model has been negatively affected by a similar job or a disadvantage is heard from others. Although the Social Cognitive Theory also believes that people choose to behave in certain ways because of past experiences, role models and other persuasive people, the main difference lies in the theory on how we learn. Social Cognitive Theory believes that our environment, people and behavior of others all interact to make us learn enough to base our decisions upon.
The three are interdependent on each other. “Behavior is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behavior” (Glanz et al, 2002, cited in University of Twente, par. 5). Chapter 4 1. Should an employee ask for career counseling, the first step we would both take is to analyze his variables which include personality traits, interests and abilities. Secondly, we would take into consideration, his views on the relationships he forms with co-employees based on his cultural beliefs.
This would help us find out what kind of environment he would prefer. As he is making the decision, I shall help him see the advantages and disadvantages of each option so that he can carefully weigh his decision. This would entail that I also mention the challenges that he might face in another career. Knowing that there are certain values that he holds on to that may not be the same with other cultures, it would be wise for us to think of the goals he may want to attain taking into mind the challenges that cultural diversity in the workplace can discourage.
After a great talk about how he wants to go through a career development based on his different culture, I shall help him find the kind of job he wants and support him in his endeavor. 2. Addressing culturally different clients is tougher because of the different values that the client may have compared to the counselor. The advisor must then set aside his cultural biases and find out more information about the client such as his economic background, values taught during childhood, educational background, etc. These and many more aspects need to be taken into consideration so that a counselor may be able to give good advice to a client.
Chapter 5 1. Veterans have lived their terms in very manipulated environments which is far from the case of reality. Everything is programmed in military life and it leaves no room for spontaneity. The Holland’s tests can help in a way to find out the true interests of the ex-military man now that he is out of service. The Social Cognitive Theory can also help give a background on this veteran’s values and behavioral patterns so that we can find a suitable job that would make him happy. This is very important especially because a veteran may have undergone more traumatic experiences than most people.
2. One of the myths about older workers is their lower health rates and absenteeism. Most older people have learned to be more conscious about their health and one’s biological clock even promotes punctuality because the older one gets, the less sleep is needed to function well. Some also say that older workers are inflexible but then most of the time they are merely misunderstood. A good talk can usually eliminate this kind of challenge. Some say that older workers deliver less work compared to younger employees.
Older workers are more efficient in what they do because of their lengths of experience and can also put younger people at a disadvantage regarding their knowledge and work experience. Another myth is that older workers may be disappointed if the job offered is below their qualifications…but who would not be? Even the younger generation would complain about this situation. There are those who say that older people may not be happy being supervised by younger managers and I believe this is not true. A good manager could handle his subordinates well and even the old know when to respect and enjoy the energy of the youth.
The worst attitude about old people is that they have less strength and lower learning capacity. IQ is not based on age. Although strength may put old people at a disadvantage, smart people with higher experiences can find ways to get results without getting too tired…and wisdom comes from age. Chapter 6 1. The two inventories I would select would be the Personality inventories, and the Support of Interest Inventories. The Myers-Briggs type indicator is used to support and measure and individual’s personality by using a score of four dipolar scales: Extroversion-Introversion; Sensing-Intuition; Thinking-Feeling; and Judgment-Perception.
By using this instrument you are able to determine the character the subordinate or co-worker has and what their potential desires may be. The SSI, on the other hand, can help determine the interests of the individual and would give us a hint on what kind of job would best fit his personality. Also, knowing that people tend to feel more content and successful if he works in a group that shares his attitude towards his job, the SSI may be able to indicate what kind of management style would be suitable for the person.
Glanz et al, (2002) cited in University of Twente. Social Cognitive Theory. par. 5. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://www. tcw. utwente. nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health %20Communication/Social_cognitive_theory. doc/ Sharma, K. (2005). Career Development Theories. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from www. cce. columbia. edu/DocRep/ppts/deansday_careerdevtheories. ppt – The Career Key (2007). Holland’s Theory of Career Choice. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://www. careerkey. org/asp/your_personality/hollands_theory_of_career_choice. asp (your book)