Pathogenesis of measles virus infection

Introduction
Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by an enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family of Paramyxoviridae (Griffin et al, 1994). It is a major cause of child morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries, despite the introduction of attenuated measles virus vaccines which have greatly reduced the incidences since the 1960s (WHO, 2009). The window period of infection for infants lies between the disappearing maternal antibody protection and vaccine administration (Manchester and Rall, 2001). In 2008, 164,000 measles deaths were reported and majority was children under five years old (WHO, 2009).
Affected individuals combat measles by generating cell mediated immunity to clear the virus and humoral immunity to provide long-term protection (Manchester and Rall, 2001). However, measles virus (MV) induces immunosuppression during infection and for weeks after recovery, rendering infected individuals susceptible to secondary infections (Griffin et al, 1994). The evidence of immunosuppression caused was first recognized in 1908 when von Pirquet reported that children lost positive skin test for tuberculin antigen during MV infection (von Pirquet, 1908).

Research has been carried in vitro and in vivo in order to define the pathogenesis pathways of MV. Immune responses to MV have been described on transgenic mice and cynomolgus monkeys models (Sato et al, 2007) suggesting that multiple potential mechanisms are linked to the virus-induced immunosuppression (Schneider-Schaulies et al, 2002).
Infection
Measles is transmitted via airborne exposure from coughing and sneezing or close contact with nasal and throat secretions. MV remains active in the air for up to two hours. It enters the body through the respiratory system and spread systemically by infecting lymphoid cells. Infection and spread is a complex process. The structure and proteins of MV are important determinants of virus tropism and pathogenesis (Yanagi et al, 2006).
Measles virus consists of a non-segmented single negative-strand RNA genome (16,000 ribonucleotides) with a diameter of 150 to 300 nm. The outer envelope comprises with the inner matrix protein to form a lipid bilayer surrounding the viral genome. It encodes six structural proteins and two nonstructural proteins which are important for attachment of the virus to the host, replication and spreading of the virus in the body (Horikami et al, 1995).
Table 1 briefly describes the functions and locations of structural components and
Figure 1 illustrates the structure of a measles virus.
Table 1: Locations and functions of Measles virus structural proteins
Structural proteins

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Order your essay today and save 25% with the discount code: COCONUTPlace Order
+