Overview and Criticisms of Andragogy

Andragogy, the art and scientific discipline of learning grownups, is based on a set of nucleus premises about why and how grownups learn. The first premise is that grownups are autonomous ( Knowles, 1984 ) . As a consequence, grownups learn best when their acquisition procedure can be autonomous, instead than centered in a traditional, dependent educational environment. Second, grownups have both a greater figure of experiences from which to larn and a wider assortment of experiences upon which they can pull ( Knowles, 1984 ) . Third, grownup function development plays an of import portion in spurring acquisition in grownups ( Knowles, 1984 ) . For illustration, as a individual ages and takes on new functions such as that of a attention supplier to a kid or an aged parent, that person has the demand to larn new accomplishments. A 4th premise is that, because grownup acquisition is straight related to adult development, grownup acquisition is focused on work outing jobs or executing new undertakings ( Knowles, 1984 ) . Finally, Knowles ( 1984 ) assumes that grownups are chiefly driven by internal incentives and non external forces.
Criticisms of Andragogy
Both Lee ( 2003 ) and Sandlin ( 2005 ) describe multiple reviews of Knowles ‘ ( 1984 ) five premises. Lee ( 2003 ) challenges andragogy on the footing that it falsely incorporates the importance of context. Harmonizing to Lee ( 2003 ) , andragogy is an individualistic construct, concentrating merely on the context a learner brings from his or her ain experiences. Andragogy fails to see that the person does non be in a vacuity and that persons have many individualities that may “ impact their positions of acquisition and ways of battle in the acquisition procedure ” ( Lee, 2003, p. 12 ) .

Sandlin ( 2005 ) undertook an integrative literature reappraisal that found that critical theoreticians found andragogy to be missing in five major and interconnected ways. First, andragogy dainties education as a impersonal, nonpolitical activity. Second, the full construct is based on a “ generic ” scholar who tends to be white, male, and in-between category. Third, andragogy appears to value merely one manner of knowing and ignores voices that do non suit into the theory. Fourth, the construct is about wholly individualistic, disregarding the importance of context. Finally, andragogy does non dispute the prevalent societal construction, even if that societal construction promotes inequality ( Sandlin, 2005 ) .
My Premises
In developing my ain premises for andragogy, I have incorporated non merely the reviews presented by Lee ( 2003 ) and Sandlin ( 2005 ) but besides those based on my ain experiences as an grownup scholar and as a instructor of grownups. Most of them reflect the simple fact that worlds are frequently complicated.
My first premise is that grownups may be self-directed in their acquisition journeys, but they may besides elect to set about a acquisition procedure because they are directed to make so by an external force. This premise addresses Sandlin ‘s ( 2005 ) review that andragogy is based on the thought that there is a generic scholar. Men and adult females may hold really different grounds for desiring to larn certain things, for illustration. As an pedagogue, it is of import to listen to the voices of your pupils.
Second, grownups may hold been about longer but that does non intend they are capable of larning from their experiences. Most people go through life holding experience after experience, but non all of those experiences are capable of supplying a minute of larning. In add-on, non everyone is interested in or capable of believing about their experiences in such a manner as to larn something from them. This premise incorporates the unfavorable judgment that andragogy, as it was originally presented, merely valued one manner of larning – that of larning from experience ( Sandlin, 2005 ) .
A 3rd premise is that grownups may larn non merely to develop the accomplishments and cognition needed for a new developmental function but besides to turn to a demand within their community. This premise addresses the concerns of both Lee ( 2003 ) and Sandlin ( 2005 ) that andragogy is excessively focused on the person and non focused plenty on the societal context of the person or on the demand for persons to turn to unfairness in community. At times, our communities may name us to set about a new function for which we need new accomplishments. In other instances, an grownup might see a job within the community and put out to larn what is needed in order to work towards a solution. Andragogy must admit that larning is non merely about the person.
A 4th premise is that grownups might desire to larn to work out jobs but they might besides larn merely because larning is merriment. Again, this is a reaction to the unfavorable judgment that andragogy posits a generic scholar ( Sandlin, 2005 ) . Adults learn for many grounds. An grownup who is researching a new avocation or larning a new athletics may non really be trying to work out a job. Rather, they may be larning because it is fun to make.
Finally, grownups might hold multiple motives for larning peculiar things at specific times. We may so be driven to larn for a sense of interior accomplishment, but we may besides be driven to larn so that we can conflict our kid ‘s school territory when they deny our kid something he or she needs. Learning can be a extremely political activity and acquisition can take to political activity ( Sandlin, 2005 ) . Andragogy should ne’er presume that grownup motive to larn is entirely driven by internal demands and desires.
Using grounds you select from your readings explicate how race, gender and sexual orientation can impact grownup development or acquisition. Please supply CONCRETE illustrations of EACH positionality ( e.g. one illustration for race, one illustration for gender, and one illustration for sexual orientation ) . ( Hint: Narratives from Adult Learning and Development: Multicultural Narratives may be a good topographic point to get down when seeking to reply this inquiry. ) ( 3 points )
Race, gender, and sexual orientation, in add-on to other personal identifiers such as category, can positively and negatively affect both grownup development and acquisition. In this essay, I briefly examine several concrete illustrations of the relationship between development or acquisition and a scholar ‘s race or cultural individuality, gender, and sexual orientation.
Race and Ethnic Identity
Race and cultural individuality can impact larning in a assortment of ways. First, race and cultural individuality can act upon what is of import or proper for an person to larn. La Tortillera, a short narrative by Patricia Preciado Martin ( 2000 ) , provides a good illustration of how race and gender intersect in finding what it is proper for, in this instance, a Latina to larn. In this civilization, it is of import for a adult female and a female parent to larn how to do tortillas for her household. Her female parent shows Ms. Martin over and over once more how to do tortillas, even though Ms. Martin finds the tortilla doing lessons to be thwarting non merely because she can ne’er acquire them merely right but besides because they are a reminder of her insufficiencies as a Latina adult female and a female parent.
How persons of specific races and cultural individualities are treated can besides play a critical function in how persons experience acquisition. Because of racism, minority pupils are less likely to finish postsecondary instruction ( Swail, 2003 ) . Unfortunately, in a racialist and classist system, minorities frequently attend ill funded schools that lack modern equipment and text editions or that are insecure. If they enroll in college or in an big instruction plan, they may still hold to cover with the long-run effects of racism. Over 50 % of Black alumnus pupils, for illustration, reported being the marks of racist actions on campus and experienced “ isolation, solitariness, disjunction, and favoritism ” as a consequence ( Johnson-Bailey, Valentine, Cervero, & A ; Bowles, 2009, p. 192 ) .
The affect of racism on larning need non be wholly negative, nevertheless. Developing a strong sense of ego in the face of racism can take scholars to reengage with their civilizations and communities. “ Such bitterness can be directed by more deeply prosecuting with and repossessing one ‘s civilization, history, and heritage, and thereby redefining what it means to be ‘me, ‘ instead than defined ( be either oneself or the dominant civilization ) harmonizing to what one is non aˆ¦ “ ( Smith & A ; Taylor, 2010, p. 53 ) .
Gender can besides present challenges to the development and larning experiences of adult females and work forces. In the acquisition environment she was analyzing, Cain ( 2002 ) described a state of affairs in which a really traditional power moral forces based on gender developed. The adult females attempted to develop consensus among all participants, while a little group of males took over the meetings and ignored the voices of everyone else in the room. The lessons for all involved were tragic. “ The importance of this for acquisition is that so many of the initial participants, including all the adult females, learned that their parts were non valued and they quit the group ” ( Cain, 2000, p. 70 ) . The work forces ‘s developmental procedure had taught them that their voices were the most of import, and, as a consequence, they ignored and alienated other voices that could hold brought a great trade of cognition to the work.
Another illustration that shows how gender can act upon the acquisition experiences of work forces and adult females can be seen in Michael Dorris ‘ ( 2000 ) short narrative Groom Service. In the narrative, Bernard and Marie both exhibit behaviours they have learned as the appropriate behaviours for their gender. What Bernard learns, in peculiar, is described in the narrative. Bernard ‘s accomplishments include runing. “ Subsequently he thought about hunting, how he could hold succeeded the times he had failed, how the animate beings behaved, how they smelled and sounded ” ( Dorris, 2000, p. 219 ) . Bernard besides learns proper behaviour around his hereafter in-laws, with whom he will populate in this matrilinear society.
Sexual Orientation
Like race and gender, sexual orientation can both positively and negatively affect development and acquisition. For illustration, if they are non “ out ” to their household, friends, or instructors, sapphic, bisexual, homosexual, and transgender ( LGBT ) pupils may endure from anxiousness about their sexual orientation ( Messinger, 2004 ) . They may make up one’s mind to remain in the cupboard because they fear that being unfastened about their orientation might take to violence against them ( Messinger, 2004 ) . They may besides fear that their parents will retreat fiscal and emotional support from them ( Freedman, 2009 ) .
As with persons who grow stronger by confronting racism, pupils who develop strong self-identities in the face of homophobia can come through the experience stronger. They frequently show a more extremely developed sense of empathy and better critical thought accomplishments than those who have non had to confront the same challenges ( Messinger, 2004 ) .
You have taken Howard Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligence Test online. You are in charge of developing resident hall helpers. Their highest multiple intelligence is one of your underside three intelligences based on your trial consequences.
List your group ‘s acquisition manner and supply a class rubric ( .25 point )
Supply one class aim ( see the CAHA 501 class course of study or seek information on the cyberspace to decently word a class nonsubjective if you do non hold experience composing aims ) . ( .75 point )
Describe how you would learn that nonsubjective to your pupils based on their learning manner. Use concrete illustrations ( at least two ) and do a clear and direct connexion between the acquisition manner and accomplishing the instruction of your aim. ( 2 points )
Learning Styles and My Training Course
My underside three intelligences were societal ( 3.14 ) , body motion ( 3.00 ) , and spacial ( 3.00 ) . For the intents of this essay, my resident hall helpers will be strongest in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Learners that excel in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence frequently use parts of their organic structure or their full organic structure as they work through the acquisition procedure ( Smith 2002, 2008 ) . As a consequence, they learn best through hands-on exercisings, including edifice things and function playing ( Armstrong, 2009 ) .
The class I will be offering them as portion of their preparation is “ Helping the International Student Transition to American Higher Education. ” The class aim is to develop empathy among resident hall helpers for the challenges that international pupils face when get downing college in the United States.
Training Exercises
Armstrong ( 2009 ) suggests that one method to prosecute pupils with strong kinaesthetic acquisition intelligence is to function drama or move out what you want them to larn. To assist resident hall helpers gain a better apprehension of what it is like to be an international pupil go toing college in the United States for the first clip, I will offer a function playing exercising. In the exercising, the scholars will draw a scenario out of a chapeau. They will hold to function drama either an international pupil confronting a barrier or challenge or a resident hall helper tasked with assisting the pupil work through the state of affairs. An illustration of one scenario that the trainees might move out would be that of a South Korean female pupil who has been harassed by other pupils for walking arm in arm with her female friends. While this is a common behaviour for immature adult females in South Korea, in the United States, it can put pupils up for homophobic torment. The function of the occupant hall helper in this scenario would be to assist the South Korean pupil understand why they are being harassed and to speak through schemes for covering with the negative emotions torment can breed and for advancing personal safety. Another function drama might affect moving like an Ethiopian pupil who has enrolled in a northern college without cognizing that winter vesture, like a coat, is needed. This exercising advances the nonsubjective by assisting the pupils function play a state of affairs in which they take on the character of an international pupil confronting a realistic job.
As portion of the preparation plan, I would state the occupant helpers that tiffin will be provided to them. The intent of the tiffin, nevertheless, is to offer them another kinaesthetic acquisition chance. Another manner in which to advance improved acquisition by kinaesthetic scholars is to prosecute them in hands-on activities or, in this instance, a oral cavity and stomach-centered activity ( Armstrong, 2009 ) . Our tiffin would be set up like the cafeteria at an American university. The nutrient would non be labeled, and they would stand for assorted nutrients that are eaten around the universe that might be unusual to American pupils. For illustration, there might be nutrients such as curried caprine animal, lingua greaser, stewed okra, natto ( fermented soya beans ) , blood pudding, kifte ( extremely spiced natural beef ) , kim qi ( spicy fermented veggies ) , and bread fruit and drinks like horchata and ginger beer. Sing such a counter might be disorientating to scholars who are steeped in American civilization and who are used to school bill of fares of pizza and beefburgers. This exercising provides pupils with a concrete, hands-on acquisition experience, that of being forced to choose and eat nutrients that are unusual without any anterior experience or counsel ( McKenzie, 1999 ) . It promotes the nonsubjective by leting the occupant hall helper to see what an international pupil might see the first twenty-four hours in the cafeteria.
You have taken the Emotional Intelligence Test online.
a ) Argue for or against the usage of emotional intelligence trials in engaging. You need to mention at least TWO ( 2 ) beginnings outside class stuffs to back up your reply. ( 2 points )
I find the thought of emotional intelligence to be extremely attractive. “ Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities that includes the abilities to perceive emotions in the ego and in others, usage emotions to ease public presentation, understand emotions and emotional cognition, and modulate emotions in the ego and in others ” ( Mayer & A ; Salovey, 1997 ) . Even though the construct of emotional intelligence presently is supported as a “ separate concept of intelligence ” by small empirical grounds ( Merriam, Caffarella, & A ; Baumgartner, 2007, p. 383 ) , I find that this theoretical account speaks to me because it argues for the importance of a really of import portion of life that is frequently denigrated or denied. How we interact and perceive the universe is non merely cold and rational, but instead our emotions play an of import portion in how we perceive the universe and how we learn and make significance.
Dirkx ( 2008 ) argues that “ emotional issues ne’er seem really far from the surface in grownup acquisition contexts ” ( p. 9 ) . Emotions can impact how the pupil reacts to a schoolroom puting. They can besides impact, positively or negatively, how good an single learns, particularly if a scholar is scared or fearful ( Rager, 2009 ) . In add-on, struggles between scholars can make negative emotions that negatively impact the ability to larn ( Dirkx, 2008 ) . Having emotional intelligence can break aid scholars understand non merely their ain acquisition procedure but besides can assist them understand what their fellow scholars are traveling through.
The usage of emotional intelligence trials in hiring, nevertheless, is a different affair. Does emotional intelligence play an of import function in an person ‘s ability to be a good employee? Is it perchance to accurately prove an person ‘s emotional intelligence?
The usage of emotional intelligence trials in hiring is turning, yet the cogency of the trials is problematic ( Grubb & A ; McDaniel, 2007 ) . There is no uncertainty that emotional intelligence can be helpful in the workplace. Cote and Miners ( 2006 ) found that workers who had low cognitive abilities could be extremely successful workers if they had strong emotional intelligence to counterbalance for their lacks in other countries. However, the ability to accurately prove for emotional intelligence and to happen a trial that could non be “ faked out ” continues to be hard. Grubb and McDaniel ( 2007 ) found that, at least with one peculiar emotional intelligence trial, the EQ-i: Second, it was possible to learn trial takers how to “ forge ” emotional intelligence. In their experiment, they found that imposters could be identified in merely 31 % of the instances, but “ most of the respondents were able to increase their mark by forging and non be identified ” ( Grubb & A ; McDaniel, 2007, p. 56 ) . Of what usage is a trial that can be so easy deceived?
On the other manus, other research workers have found emotional intelligence trials to be really utile in engaging patterns. In one survey, the research workers found that emotional intelligence trials were advantageous to minority trial takers, as they tended to hit higher in emotional intelligence than Caucasians ( Van Rooy, Alexander, & A ; Chockalingam, 2005 ) . If engaging were based on emotional intelligence trials with the engaging single unaware of the race of the trial taker, minority appliers might be more likely to be hired, whereas in traditional hiring state of affairss they are more likely to non be hired due to racism.
When I took the emotional intelligence trial online, I was extremely dismayed by the consequences, which indicated that I had below mean emotional intelligence. I found this distressing because I have spent most of my calling working in places that require a high grade of emotional intelligence ( ability to read people, empathy ) and I have been really successful in my work. Have I been forging emotional intelligence this full clip or did I merely non make good in the proving environment? Or was the trial itself faulty?
In the terminal, I believe that the construct of emotional intelligence is of import to see in the workplace. In many places, holding emotional intelligence is cardinal to or supports success. However, emotional intelligence trials remain debatable and should be used merely with great cautiousness. Ultimately, whether or non person has the emotional intelligence needed for any given place will merely be determined by detecting that single ‘s public presentation on the occupation. As the testing instruments are developed and refined, possibly this fact will alter, but for now, to establish a determination on whether or non to engage a given person on the footing of an emotional intelligence trial is non in the best involvements of employer or employee.
5. Situated knowledge is a subject of involvement in big instruction and it has been used in many
scenes. Following are inquiries refering located knowledge.
Compare ( state the similarities between ) and contrast ( state the differences between ) situated knowledge and experiential acquisition. ( 1 point )
In the narrative “ Talking to the Dead ” by Watanabe, explicate what type ( s ) of larning occur for supporter ( e.g. experiential, located knowledge, brooding pattern ) and support your reply by binding it to grounds in your readings. ( 1 point )
Situated knowledge and experiential acquisition are closely related. However, the primary topographic point of societal interaction and societal relationships as a demand of larning in societal knowledge delineates the two theories from each other. It is the importance of the societal interactions in Watanabe ‘s ( 2000 ) narrative, Talking to the Dead, that indicate that the type of larning the supporter experienced falls under the class of located knowledge.
Situated Cognition and Experiential Learning
One of the most outstanding theories of grownup instruction, experiential acquisition addresses how grownups make significance or learn from their experiences ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . There are five major schools of idea that autumn under experiential acquisition theory. The first is the constructivist theoretical account, in which scholars participate in a brooding procedure in order to develop new apprehensions ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . The situative theoretical account postulates that larning happens as the scholar participates in activities, such as larning on the occupation ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . The psychoanalytic theoretical account believes that the emotions of the scholar, peculiarly those that inhibit acquisition, must be dealt with in order for larning to happen, and the critical theoretical account believes that larning happens when the scholar challenges the bulk civilization ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . Finally, the complexness theoretical account posits that larning happens when persons compare and contrast what multiple experiences teach them ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) .
Like experiential acquisition, situated knowledge involves a scholar deriving new understanding from lived experience. One illustration of located knowledge, the cognitive apprenticeship, makes this clear. In this procedure, larning can ne’er be separated “ from the state of affairs in which the acquisition is presented ” ( Merriam et al. , 2007, p. 178 ) . The acquisition happens in the experience. The experience of the topographic point itself is of import to the procedure of acquisition. “ The physical and societal experiences and state of affairss in which scholars find themselves and the tools they use in that experience are built-in to the full acquisition procedure ” ( Merriam et al. , 2007, p. 178 ) . Experiential acquisition besides focuses on “ making the undertaking in order to larn it ” ( Hansman, 2001, p. 46 ) .
Situated knowledge, nevertheless, “ is inherently societal in nature. The nature of the interactions among scholars, the tools they use within these interactions, the activity itself, and the societal context in which the activity takes topographic point form acquisition ” ( Hansman, p. 45 ) . Experiential larning theory might affect a societal constituent but does non needfully necessitate it.
Learning to Talk to the Dead
In seeking to find what type of larning the supporter of Watanabe ‘s ( 2000 ) narrative Talking to the Dead experienced, I felt it of import to believe about what it was that she was truly larning. On the surface, it appears that she was larning the procedure of fixing the organic structures of the dead. However, at a deeper degree, the supporter is really larning about proper societal relationships – between maestro and learner, between female parents and kids, between co-workers, and between the life and the dead ( Watanabe, 2000 ) . With this in head, I believe that the supporter participated in located knowledge. Neither her acquisition procedure nor what she learned can be separated for the societal experience ( Hansman, 2001 ) . As in a cognitive apprenticeship, her larning merely came approximately because she learned in a specific state of affairs ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . Had she learned to embalm organic structures in another topographic point, she ne’er would hold learned that the proper manner to care for Aunty Talking to the Dead was to cremate her cadaver in the traditional manner ( Watanabe, 2000 ) . Every experience she had in larning about the proper relationships between the life and the dead – from the puting out of Mustard to the Blindman and the Blindman ‘s Dog – every societal context in which she found herself and of all time interaction between herself, Aunty, and others in the community contributed to her larning what she needed to larn in order to come to her minute ( Watanabe, 2000, p. 279 ) .
Application of Gerald Grow ‘s SDL Scale to Instruction: Grow ‘s SDL graduated table is enlightening for all pedagogues. This inquiry asks you to use his graduated table. You are an teacher in whatever context you choose.
a ) Create a class rubric and one ( 1 ) aim. ( 1 point )
B ) Describe in item how you would learn this aim ( use 2 concrete illustrations ) to a Level 1 and a Level 4 scholar. ( 2 points )
I have for two old ages taught a class titled “ Female Images of the Divine in the West. ” My pupils dearly call it the goddess category. The primary aim of the class is to develop the ability to believe critically about how spiritual symbols and imagery impact people ‘s lives – both in the past and in the present. It is a 200-level undergraduate category, and I frequently find that I have a big group of freshman pupils in my category. I besides tend to hold a important figure of non-traditional-age pupils in my category, largely because it is a dark category. It makes for a really interesting group of pupils, stand foring every phase of Grow ‘s ( 1991 ) SDL Scale to Instruction.
Teaching Phase 1 Learners
Phase 1 scholars are really dependent and view the teacher as the ultimate authorization on the capable affair ( Grow, 1991 ) . They feel most comfy in environments in which they receive immediate feedback, and they feel most comfy in an environment in which the teacher-master dispenses wisdom to the scholar ( Grow, 1991 ) . In working with this type of pupil, the pedagogue needs to happen a manner to assist the pupil addition assurance and get down to derive command over stuff that might be wholly new to them ( Grow, 1991 ( .
The first manner I teach to my aim for my Phase 1 scholars is to assist them acknowledge that they know more about images of goddesses than they might believe they do – even if they do non place with any peculiar religion. We do this by speaking about popular civilization word pictures of goddesses. I have discovered that my pupils all seem to adore Xena: Warrior Princess. I have them travel on YouTube and happen cartridge holders from the show that depict the assorted goddesses – Here, Callisto, and Aphrodite to call merely a few. We so read primary texts from the ancient Greeks depicting the goddesses. As a group, we identify similarities and differences between the telecasting word pictures and the word pictures of the ancient Greeks and discourse why the two are frequently different. This treatment frequently leads to a farther treatment about why the goddesses were of import to ancient peoples and starts a semester-long treatment about the topographic point of goddess imagination in modern times.
A 2nd manner I help my Phase 1 pupils is that I give quizzes in category, particularly during the first few hebdomads, and we go over the replies right off. This helps them acquire immediate feedback on their apprehension of the stuff. This activity helps progress the class aim because spiritual symbolism both holds steady and evolves over clip. If they do non derive a solid command of the ancient apprehensions of goddesses, they have great trouble when we begin treatment on whether or non modern figures, such as Princess Diana or Angelina Jolie, serve the same intents in modern society as Artemis or Isis did in antediluvian civilizations.
Teaching Phase 4 Learners
Phase 4 scholars are considered to be to the full autonomous ( Grow, 1991 ) . For a autonomous scholar, the pedagogue is person who serves as a adviser, heightening the acquisition work that is delineated and directed by the scholar. Students working at the really highest degrees are frequently autonomous scholars ; surely, a pupil set abouting a major undertaking such as a thesis ought to be able to work as a autonomous scholar ( Grow, 1991 ) .
As an teacher of a phase 4 scholar, I personally feel most comfy with the delegator function ( Grow, 1991 ) . In this function, I can work straight with the pupil to detect their involvements and demands, assist them develop a acquisition program, and so run into with them on a regular footing to discourse their advancement and any barriers they have encountered. As portion of their acquisition program, we besides develop together an appraisal program: what will be assessed, what merchandises they are required to bring forth, and by which standard we will measure their advancement ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . Most frequently, the phase 4 pupils I work with and I agree that they will prosecute an independent undertaking that makes a connexion between the antediluvian and the modern. One undertaking involved a pupil who examined the ancient Irish myths of the godly figure Deirdre. She so created an interpretative dance that incorporated environmental, costume, and motion symbols to convey the myth to a modern audience. Another pupil undertook a undertaking that looked at the construct of ancient sovereignty goddesses and so used that stuff to analyse the Robert Zemeckis ‘ movie version of Beowulf. When we foremost discussed the undertaking, I suspected she might happen reverberations of sovereignty goddesses in the figure of Grendel ‘s female parent, but she besides, convincingly, found reverberations of the construct in the figure of Wealtheow. I was blown off! My pupil had made an rational find that had wholly escape me.
7. Several writers have constructed theoretical accounts that show autonomous acquisition as a
Construct your ain theoretical account of autonomous acquisition based on your experiences. ( 1 point )
Compare ( state the similarities between ) and contrast ( state the differences between your theoretical account and two of the theoretical accounts found in Merriam, Caffarella and Baumgartner ( 2007 ) ( pp. 110-119 ) . ( 2 points )
Argue for or against the importance of context in the autonomous acquisition procedure utilizing grounds from the literature. ( 1 points )
Specifying autonomous acquisition can be slippery. It is non a self-contained theory of grownup larning but alternatively a group of related constructs and patterns. Among the definitions I most prefer, Caffarella ( 1993 ) defines autonomous acquisition as:
a self-initiated procedure of larning that stresses the ability of persons to program and pull off their ain acquisition, an property or feature of scholars with personal liberty as its trademark, and a manner of forming direction in formal scenes that allows for greater scholar control. ( p. 25 ) .
Similar to Caffarella ‘s ( 1993 ) definition, Candy ‘s ( 1987 ) definition focuses on the importance of liberty in autonomous acquisition, although the scholar can work in concert with an pedagogue ( as cited in Grow, 1991 ) .
My Model of Autonomous Learning
My ain theoretical account of autonomous acquisition is one based on procedure divinity. Process divinity is grounded in alteration, growing, and changeless motion. “ Human and other existences are non things ( substances or kernels ) situated in empty infinite aˆ¦ but are active procedures of all time in relation and passage ” ( Christ, 2003, p. 3 ) . Furthermore, as a postmodern divinity, it is structured around the belief that all cognition is contextual and that cognition is shaped and controlled by cultural systems. The ego can ne’er be genuinely independent. “ The individuality of each of us extends over and includes the civilization, society, and civilisation that we participate in. There is no stray, lone ego imprisoned in its ain organic structure ” ( Brumbaugh, 1982, p. 3 ) .
My theoretical account of autonomous acquisition is one, so, that is based on the thought that worlds, by nature, are spurred to turn and alter. Curiosity is portion of growing and alteration, whether initiated by internal demands and involvements or external demands and forces. Once wonder is sparked, the scholar sees where that wonder takes her or him – either in weaving jets of larning activity or in a sustained acquisition journey. As portion of their autonomous acquisition, the scholar may seek out educational stuffs. The scholar may besides integrate hands-on activities, seting into pattern what has been taken in from the educational stuffs, or take a category to foster reinforce what has been learned from other beginnings. At times, failure may ensue, and the scholar may get down the full procedure once more. If there is success, the scholar may rest for a clip, but be spurred once more subsequently to set about a new acquisition undertaking.
Similarities and Differences Between Models
In many ways, my theoretical account of autonomous acquisition is non much different from many of the synergistic theoretical accounts described in Merriam et Al. ( 2007 ) . Like those theoretical accounts, my theoretical account is non additive in nature. Curiosity and the acquisition journey will take the scholar where the scholar wants or needs to travel. My theoretical account has the most in common with Spear ‘s theoretical account. First, Spear identifies three elements that spur autonomous acquisition, all of which work with my theoretical account: environmental chance, opportunity, and personal cognition ( as cited in Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . Second, Spear ‘s theoretical account incorporates the thought that autonomous acquisition is non a steady, controlled procedure, but instead one that can go on in tantrums and starts, one that can halt and get down once more, and one that can integrate room for both failure and success ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) .
My theoretical account is least like those proposed by Tough and Knowles. In Tough ‘s theoretical account, autonomous acquisition is calculated and focused on achieving a specific piece of cognition or a accomplishment ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . In Knowles ‘ theoretical account, autonomous acquisition is a bit-by-bit procedure focused on work outing a particular job ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . My larning theoretical account acknowledges that certain scholars may elect to set about a additive autonomous acquisition procedure focused on work outing a peculiar job, but it does non presume that all autonomous acquisition will follow a similar way. My theoretical account has room for larning for the interest of acquisition and for fulfilling wonder, for the joy of merely being able to state “ Well, you learn something new every twenty-four hours. ”
Importance of Context
In all of the theoretical accounts I have examined here, including my ain, context plays a critical function. First, a scholar ‘s context may find whether or non she or he is interested in or capable of take parting in a autonomous acquisition procedure ( Grow, 1991 ; Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . Second, context can find the type of resources available to assist with acquisition. For illustration, interior metropolis scholars of colour may non hold entree to all the rich acquisition resources that can be obtained through the Internet. Not merely is the monetary value of a computing machine prohibitive, but the scholar, as the consequence of life in a context, an environment, that is unsupportive, may non hold the computing machine literacy needed to utilize the Internet to seek out information as portion of his or her autonomous acquisition procedure ( Norris & A ; Conceicao, 2004 ) . All in all, context should be a core constituent of autonomous acquisition.
8. Experiential acquisition, autonomous acquisition, and transformative acquisition are three theories of grownup acquisition. What is the “ best ” larning theory? Why? Supply grounds from your readings ( and beyond if you so choose ) to back up your points. ( 3 points )
This essay will briefly analyze the chief renters of experiential acquisition, autonomous acquisition, and transformative acquisition. While all three theories have both positive and negative facets, I argue that experiential acquisition is the most flexible and hence the most utile of the three theories for the work of big pedagogues.
The Three Theories
Experiential larning “ is a procedure of doing intending from all experiences-cognitive, emotional, physical, societal and religious ” ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002, p. 206 ) . Harmonizing to Zepke and Leach ( 2002 ) , experiential acquisition is possibly the most dominant construct in the grownup instruction field, but theoreticians have different thoughts of how the procedure works. Learners can either reflect on experience in order to larn ( constructivist lens ) , learn through take parting in experiences ( situative lens ) , learn by linking with and get the better ofing frights and other emotional barriers ( psychoanalytic lens ) , learn by challenge the dominate ethos ( critical lens ) , or larn by developing an apprehension of how assorted experiences relate to each other ( complexness lens ) ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Grow ( 1991 ) , the “ end of the educational procedure is to bring forth autonomous, womb-to-tomb scholars ” ( p. 127 ) . Although autonomous acquisition can be hard to specify, Candy ( 1987 ) delineated three features that can be used to set up whether or non learning is autonomous: the scholar possesses autonomy, the acquisition can go on outside of a formal acquisition environment, and the acquisition is directed chiefly by the pupil even if a instructor is involved ( as cited in Grow, 1991 ) .
Mezirow ‘s theory of transformational larning postulates that adults see a minute when their beliefs turn out inadequate in understanding the state of affairs in which they find themselves ( Elias & A ; Merriam, 2005 ) . This disorienting quandary forces them to reevaluate their cognition and develop new apprehensions. As a consequence, a transmutation happens, and the single learns and grows ( Elias & A ; Merriam, 2005 ) . Transformative acquisition is an emancipatory procedure in which self-reflection leads to critical consciousness ( Cranton, 2002 ) .
The “ Best ” Theory
All of these larning theories have countries of concern. For illustration, scholars may non really have the ability to larn from experience, or they may non hold had experiences that are meaningful ( Brookfield, 1998 ) . On the other manus, scholars may non hold the desire or the ability to direct their ain acquisition procedures ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . Transformative acquisition can be ethically disputing. First of wholly, the terminal consequence of transformative acquisition could be a major crisis for the scholar. “ Despite an pedagogue ‘s best purposes, a procedure of transformative acquisition can take to unpredictable and unwilled events ” ( Moore, 2005, p. 83 ) . The power derived function between scholar and pedagogue can take to indoctrination ( Moore, 2005 ) .
Ultimately, the best acquisition theory is whichever theory best helps the scholar run into his or her educational ends. However, transmutation of the scholar is non a demand of either autonomous or experiential acquisition ; hence, they both may advance greater flexibleness in grownup instruction ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . Autonomous acquisition is less an grownup larning theory and more a related group of patterns and thoughts ( Caffarella, 1993 ) ; as a consequence, it is slightly mussy. It besides does non see as many issues as experiential larning theory does.
Experiential acquisition, on the other manus, addresses the procedure of larning non merely from reflecting on and in experience but besides from larning through engagement in experiences ( Zepke & A ; Leach, 2002 ) . It besides addresses of import issues around emotions, cultural context and the scholar ‘s relationship to society, and doing sense of a broad assortment of experiences that may either reinforce or dispute each other ( Merriam et al. , 2007 ) . All in all, experiential acquisition addresses more issues that might impact a scholar ‘s larning experience than the other two theories, and hence, it is the most utile of the theories for grownup pedagogues.

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