Notes from Doran

How did concerns to keep Catholics happy Influence Elizabethan religious settlement? For both personal and political reasons Elizabeth was anxious to retain certain Catholic ceremonial traditions within her Church. Personally, she disliked the idea of a married clergy, she loved elaborate Church music and refused to accept that all images were idolatrous. Equally, she was aware that she had to persuade Spain that her Church was little different, externally, to theirs.
At the same time, she had to persuade the Lutheran that she was a follower of their Suburb Confession. Therefore, outward Catholic signs such as the use of vestments, crosses and candlesticks would serve to reassure both Lutheran and Catholics. How widespread does Doran say Catholicism was up to 1 580? When Elizabeth came to the throne, the ma]royalty of people In England and Wales were Catholic in belief. By 1 559 only 14% of wills in Sussex contained Protestant formulae and bequests; by 1560 only 10% of wills in Kent had a statement of Protestantism in the preamble.
Therefore, Elizabethan task was to slowly wean the population away from their traditional Catholic beliefs and towards her protestant gem through preaching and education. The government was actually particularly successful in this, reducing Catholicism to a mere household religion with only 1-2% of the population supporting it. Some say this was down to the gentry and clerical leadership’s failure to mount any resistance to Elizabethan Religious Settlement, thus allowing ordinary laity to drift into conformity. When the parish priest was ready to use the Book of Common Prayer and the squire publicly appeared at the new services, it was hardly surprising the ordinary people followed the examples of their social superiors” Patrick McGrath The Catholic Church did not simply give in without a struggle when Elizabeth came to the throne. The Clerical leadership made an early start against Elizabethan settlement – the bishops’ fought against the 1559 legislation In the House of Lords as well as the refusal of all but one of the Marina episcopate to take the Oath of Supremacy.

Many of the Catholic Intelligentsia also refused to conform to the new Protestant Church – about 100 fellows and other senior members left the university of Oxford between 1559 – 1566. Corner of these went into exile, some went to the Catholic university of Alluvial publishing 40+ books and pamphlets between 1564- 1568. By 1564 Lavational attacks on the Elizabethan Church scared Elizabeth, and by 1 566 the Queen was so concerned about illegal foreign books entering the country, that she asked for all boats to be searched. What reasons does Doran give for Increasing perceived threat of Catholicism In the 1 5705? OFF England and abroad. The deteriorating relationship with Spain after 1568 and Mary Stuart flight to England in the same year to seek refuge led to many Catholic plots for uprising and rebellion supported by Spanish military power. The 1566 election of Pope Pips V, who referred to Elizabeth as one Who pretended to be Queen of England’, raised anxieties over whether he would send a crusade. Finally, in 1569 the Northern Rebellion broke out which vindicated fears of a Catholic threat; this was followed by the Bull of Excommunication in 1570 and the Riddled Plot in 1571.
In 1572 the massacre of French Hugeness on SST. Bartholomew Day scared people that there was an international plot to wipe out Protestantism. How much a threat were Catholics in reality? Not huge, it has been exaggerated slightly. The people of England were mostly loyal to the Queen and Country, they simply hoped for better times under Mary. The Northern Rebellion was largely contained in the Northern counties of Durham, Northumberland, Wasteland and York. John Leslie and Nicholas Sanders were the only two polemicists to write books expressing political opposition.
Equally, the government put more pressure on the Catholics which weakened their threat considerably: more enquiries were held into recusant, the Privy Council ordered new groups of people to subscribe to the Prayer Book and supremacy; ewers at the Inns of Court were questioned about their attendance at communion and many bishops took firmer action against recusant; Catholics were usually fined; some lawyers expelled from their Inns at Courts and some lost their position on the bench of magistrates.
How loyal were Catholics in the 1 sass? Even though during the sass an intense persecution of their religion took place, Catholics were mostly loyal to Queen Elizabeth. The vast majority of people simply waited for better times ahead when Mary, Queen of Scots was to take to the throne or when they might be granted tolerance under Protestantism. Very few people plotted against Elizabeth or her government. Most people passively accepted laws for recusant and accepted those enforcing penal laws.
There were several statements and petitions addressed to the Queen by prominent Catholics expressing their loyalty and not all were under duress. In fact, in 1585 Catholic nobles and gentry led by Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk presented Elizabeth with a petition stating their complete loyalty. Even after a call for the restoration of Catholicism by force from William Allen and Robert Parsons, there was very little Catholic support.

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