Multiple Choice

According to Erich Goode, a way to explain adolescent involvement in delinquency is through:

Answer    social learning theory 

   failure to fit into conventional society 

   inadequate child-parent relationships 

   social bond theory 

Over the past 15 years, the number of females arrested for violent crimes has increased ____ percent.

Answer    15 

   25 

   30 

   45

Infanticide is primarily committed by members of a child’s family using ____.

Answer    poison 

   guns 

   hands or feet 

   knives



6 points   

In 2005, the U.SHistorically, which of the following was not handled by the juvenile court?

Answer    neglected children 

   delinquents 

   hate crimes 

   status offenses

. Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty for offenders under the age of 18 at the time they committed their crime:

Answer    could continue as it is in line with the Stubborn Child Law of the Constitution 

   violates the Eighth Amendment 

   is acceptable to the general public and, therefore, constitutional 

   violates the principle of parens patriae

Once a juvenile is detained and a petition is filed, a hearing must be scheduled within:

Answer    24 hours 

   48-72 hours 

   85-120 hours 

   1 week

When a juvenile is suspected of committing a crime, police have the discretion to:

Answer    release the child and report the contact 

   interrogate or search the child 

   turn the child over to their parents under the promise of punishment 

   both A and B are correct

Most youth tend to pick friends who are like themselves. The term that describes this process is called_________.

Answer    homophily 

   heliophobia 

   hobophobily 

   hormephobia

According to criminologist Ko-lin Chin, Chinese gang activity is dominated by:

Answer    fighting over turf 

   accumulating money 

   doing drugs 

   organizing prostitution rings 

The Rochester Youth Development Study found that gang members accounted for _____ percent of the serious delinquent acts in the community.

Answer    10 

   18 

   nearly 40 

   more than 85

Some risk factors associated with gang membership include:

Answer    poverty 

   failure in school 

   prior violence 

   increased drug use 

   all of the above are correct

Latchkey children are those who:

Answer    regularly pick the locks on their neighbor’s homes 

   have been abandoned at home by work-oriented parents 

   regularly care for themselves without adult supervision after school or on weekends 

   have highly authoritarian parents 

In a study of the relationship between religiosity and delinquency, Travis Hirschi and Rodney Stark found that:

Answer    religious adolescents had lower rates of delinquency 

   religious adolescents had higher rates of delinquency 

   atheist adolescents had lower rates of delinquency than religious adolescents 

   there was no relationship between religiosity and delinquency 

According to Russell Hill and Frank Stafford, one way mothers compensate for being in the paid labor force full-time is by:

Answer    spending more money on their children 

   cutting down on their own sleep and leisure time 

   taking time off from work to be with their children 

   spending more time with their children on weekends 

According to Bruce Chadwick and Brent Top, the more _____ a person is, the less likely he or she will participate in delinquent or criminal behaviors.

Answer    ethical 

   educated 

   financially secure 

   religious 

According to the most recent Indicators of School Crime and Safety report, children were ___ times more likely to be murdered away from school than at school.

Answer    5 

   12 

   22 

   50

Children are ____ times more likely to be murdered away from school than at school.

Answer 16 

   35 

   50 

   80

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in _____, that school officials may legally search students and their lockers without consent.

Answer    Thompson v. Carthage School District 

   New Jersey v. T.L.O. 

   Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton 

   West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette

Research has found that schools with zero-tolerance policies are _____ orderly and secure than schools, which use a case-by-case approach.

Answer    significantly more 

   significantly less 

   no more 

   no less

Peers offer each other a sense of which of the following?

Answer acceptance 

   camaraderie 

   empowerment 

   all of the above are correct

Which one of the following is not a risk factor for very early childhood and delinquency?

Answer    maternal smoking 

   bullying 

   parent incarceration 

   exposure to lead

Impoverished neighborhoods often are characterized by which of the following?

Answer    high rates of self-employment 

   inadequate education systems 

   strong social support networks 

   both B and C are correct

The most effective prevention programs are aimed at children in:

Answer    the earliest stages of life 

   preschool and kindergarten 

   run-down neighborhoods 

   early Head Start program

The numerous early prevention programs conducted since the 1970’s have concluded that:Answer

  children are active learners and that they are better equipped to enter kindergarten
  prevention is more effective among females
  all crime prevention programs need to target the lower-class
  early intervention in prenatal care improves child development and decreases risk factors A _____ approach to the drug problem involves using a public health model to reduce the risks and consequences of using illicit drugs.Answer  D.A.R.E.  legalization  harm reduction  resistance education
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