POLITICAL SCIENCES| MEDIA AND FOREIGN POLICY| SUBMITTED TO | MR. IJAZ BUTT| SUBMITTED BY| AYESHA SADDIQUE (01)| SADIA ABBAS (29) MISHA ZAIDI (12) INSTITUTE OF COMMUNICATION STUDIES PUBJAB UNIVERSITY LAHORE | B. S (HONS. ) 3RD SEMESTER (MORNING) FOREIGN POLICY AND MEDIA DEFINITION OF FOREIGN POLICY Foreign Policy can be defined as “Relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states.
It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country wants to establish relations with another country. ” WHY IT IS NECESSORY FOR A COUNTERY? No country today can think of a life independent of other nations. Every country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical, industrial and technological fields. It is thus necessary for every country to formulate a sound foreign policy. Foreign policy is necessary for a country to * Promote sovereignty & national interest Cope up the problems of environment, Terrorism and many others. * Solve the issues of poverty, underemployment, and Unemployment * Strengthen territorial & security integrity of country * Get International resources for countries domestic socio- economic context such as trading. DETERMINANTS OF THE FOREIGN POLICY The following are the determinants of the foreign policy of Pakistan:- Administrative Troika Administrative Troika comprises the President of Pakistan, The Prime Minister rand Chief of Army Staff. It plays very important role in formulating foreign policy
It can approve or disapprove the foreign policy of Pakistan President Or can make any change in it. However, it is very difficult to deviate from the previous foreign commitments made by Troika. Chief of prime Army staff minister Ministry of Foreign Affairs The ministry can play very important role in formulating the foreign policy. It comprises the specialists and experts of foreign policy and the bureaucrats of high level. They prepare foreign policy, keeping in view the basic objectives and principles of the policy.
They formulate the policy, plans and programs regarding the priorities of foreign policy, and fully cooperate with Troika for its preparation. In accordance with new constitutional amendment, the Troika has been replaced by the National Security Council. Intelligence Agencies Pakistan’s intelligence agencies also play very effective role in the formulation of foreign policy by providing full information about the objectives of other countries foreign policies. Keeping in view these in formations, Pakistan formulates its foreign policy. Political Parties and Pressure Groups
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The political parties and pressure groups have deep impacts on the formulation of foreign policy. The political parties include the priorities of foreign policy in their manifestoes, and after their success in the election, they force the government to change the priorities of foreign policy according to the changing scenario in the light of their view points. Likewise the pressure groups can also influence the foreign policy. Parliament The Ministry of Foreign Affairs usually prepares the foreign policy according to the directions of executive and puts it before the Parliament for approval.
After discussion and debate the parliament gives approval to it or suggests some FOREIGN POLICY AND ROLE OF MEDIA: Recent events in world have intensified speculations about the role of traditional mass media as well as communication technologies in shaping political events and cultures across the world… Media do not necessarily influence policymakers directly, but may work through public opinion by shaping what people know and believe about foreign politics. Public opinion, embodied in predominant political views or in election results, can have considerable influence on policymakers that need approval from the electorate.
Influence of media on foreign policy Accelerant to positive action * Political decision-making process in the light of a new or ongoing issue * Speeds the parliamentary process and deployment process of an already mandated issue Impediment to positive action * Where coverage of an incident will degrade public will and support for an ongoing operation or diplomatic initiative * Slows the parliamentary process and deployment process of an already mandated issue * As a threat to operational and national security Agenda Setting Agency Raises an unknown issue to a position where it produces political pressure for action According to the researchers: Mody represents a strongly normative perspective, arguing that an informed citizenry is necessary, although not sufficient, for preventing conflict and humanitarian crises. In her argument, media influence foreign policy by putting issues on the public agenda and by framing them in a way that catches the attention – and sympathy – of a large audience, which then demands action from their elected representatives.
Philip Seib from the University of Southern California discusses “new” media, in particular satellite television and the Internet. Seib posits that the media are indeed able to change the status quo of foreign policy by shaping international and domestic public opinion. Seib’s main idea is the “virtual state:” disperse communities achieve an unprecedented cohesion that puts them on the political map internationally. Satellite media and the Internet foster “virtual sovereignty” by cultivating a shared identity among disperse members of ethnic or religious communities.
This is relevant for foreign policy because virtual states can affect the stability of traditional states and regions. Media can also alleviate tensions and conflict by providing new perspectives to an unprecedentedly large audience. Seib recommends that, if policymakers want to take advantage of the media’s power to create communities, cooperation is a better approach than competition, and international media, such as Voice of America and Deutsche Welle, become relevant tools of foreign politics.
PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY: Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of percentage of population (after Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan has a fierce independent foreign policy, especially when it comes to issues such as development of nuclear weapons, construction of nuclear reactors, foreign military purchases and other issues that are vital to its national interests.
Pakistan has a strategic geo-political location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan is an important member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), a major non-NATO ally of the war against terrorism, and has a highly disciplined military, which is the world’s eighth-largest standing military force. Basic Goals of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy * Maintenance of territorial integrity. Maintenance of its political independence. * Acceleration of social and economic development. * Strengthening its place on the globe. * Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries. ROLE OF MEDIA IN PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY Pakistan has developed a vibrant and free-wheeling media in the last decade . Yet Pakistani journalists continue to face pressure both from the authorities and militant groups when reporting on terrorism and its impact on the country and this effect its foreign policy.
Senior Journalist, Zahid Husain spoke on ‘Pakistani media and its impact on foreign policy. ’ He was of the view that Pakistani media is much more candid, opaque and vocal regarding foreign policy. One of the major problems of print media, he said, is its division in English and Urdu. English newspapers cover issues related to foreign and security policy while there are hardly any such issues available in Urdu newspapers. This dichotomy is an underlying reason of our conflicts over various issues and inability to reach consensus.
What should be the role of Pakistani media * Play role from watch dog to defender * Awake the people in a right way * Provide authentic and sincere information to people * Impartially shape public opinion CONCLUSION: So all of this proves that Pakistan media is just playing the role of watch dog in the formation of Pakistan’s foreign policy. it needs to much more mature. in order to make a perfect policy Pakistan media have to play its real role of awaking the people. Above discussion posit that the media shape foreign policy by shaping public opinion.
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