Management is: 1. Administration of business: the organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or a sector of a business 2. Managers as group: managers and employers considered collectively, especially the directors and executives of a business or organization 3. Handling of something successfully: the act of handling or controlling something successfully “Crisis management” 4. Skill in handling or using something: the skillful handling or use of something such as resources This definition stress on the following functions: organization, running, administration, supervision, managing, controlling.
However these functions required different levels of structures like: Directors, managers, executives, employers, board, bosses This definition covers the whole function of management however it ignores to show the importance of human from inspiration side ———————————————————————————————————– Definition of Management by functions: Financial & Investment Dictionary: Management Combined fields of policy and administration and the people who provide the decisions and supervision necessary to implement the owners’ business objectives and achieve stability and growth.
The administration of policies is carried out by the Chief Executive Officer, his or her immediate staff, and everybody else who possesses authority delegated by people with supervisory responsibility. Thus the size of management can range from one person in a small organization to multilayered management hierarchies in large, complex organizations. The top members of management, called senior management, report to the owners of a firm; in large corporations, the Chairman of the Board the President. The application of scientific principles to decision-making is called management science. Marketing Dictionary: Management 1.
Collective administrative heads of a company, institution, business, etc. , who are responsible for conducting the affairs of the company (institution, business, etc. ) for meeting its short-range and long-range objectives, and for maintaining it as a profit-making organization and/or an ongoing enterprise. 2. Leading or supervising of an organization, business operation, or the like. 3. Wise use of means to accomplish a purpose. Business Encyclopedia: Management The role of a manager is comprehensive and often very complex. Not everyone wants to be a manager, nor should everyone consider being a manager. A Definition of Management
Some would define management as an art, while others would define it as a science. Whether management is an art or a science isn’t what is most important. Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. An organization could be a business, a school, a city, a group of volunteers, or any governmental entity. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling.
Some would include leading as a managing function, but for the purposes of this discussion, leading is included as a part of directing. Planning: Planning in any organization occurs in different ways and at all levels. The plant manager must be concerned with the overall operations of the plant, while the assembly-line manager or supervisor is only responsible for the line that he or she oversees. Planning could include setting organizational goals. This is usually done by higher-level managers in an organization. As a part of the planning process, the manager then develops strategies for achieving the goals of the organization.
In order to implement the strategies, resources will be needed and must be acquired. The planners must also then determine the standards, or levels of quality, that need to be met in completing the tasks. In general, planning can be strategic planning, tactical planning, or contingency planning. Strategic planning is long-range planning that is normally completed by top-level managers in an organization. Examples of strategic decisions managers make are who the customer or clientele should be, what products or services should be sold, and where the products and services should be sold.
Short-range or tactical planning is done for the benefit of lower-level managers, since it is the process of developing very detailed strategies about what needs to be done, who should do it, and how it should be done. Organizing: Organizing refers to the way the organization allocates resources, assigns tasks, and goes about accomplishing its goals, In the process of organizing, managers arrange a framework that links all workers, tasks, and resources together so the organizational goals can be achieved.
Directing: Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing, It is supervising, or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization. In many organizations, directing involves making assignments, assisting workers to carry out assignments, interpreting organizational policies, and informing workers of how well they are performing. To effectively carry out this function, managers must have leadership skills in order to get workers to perform effectively. Controlling The controlling function involves the evaluation activities that managers must perform.
It is the process of determining if the company’s goals and objectives are being met. This process also includes correcting situations in which the goals and objectives are not being met. There are several activities that are a part of the controlling function. ———————————————————————————————————— Managerial Skills To be an effective manager, it is necessary to possess many skills. Not all managers have all the skills that would make them the most effective manager.
As technology advances and grows, the skills that are needed by managers are constantly changing. Different levels of management in the organizational structure also require different types of management skills. Generally, however, managers need to have communication skills, human skills, computer skills, time-management skills, and technical skills. Communication Skills Communication skills fall into the broad categories of oral and written skills, both of which managers use in many different ways. It is necessary for a manager to orally explain processes and give direction to workers.
It is also necessary for managers to give verbal praise to workers. Managers are also expected to conduct meetings and give talks to groups of people. An important part of the oral communication process is listening. Managers are expected to listen to their supervisors and to their workers. A manager must hear recommendations and complaints on a regular basis and must be willing to follow through on what is heard. A manager who doesn’t listen is not a good communicator. Human Skills Relating to other people is vital in order to be a good manager. Workers come in about every temperament that can be imagined.
It takes a manager with the right human skills to manage this variety of workers effectively. Diversity in the workplace is commonplace. The manager must understand different personality types and cultures to be able to supervise these workers. Human skills cannot be learned in a classroom; they are best learned by working with people. Gaining an understanding of personality types can be learned from books, but practice in dealing with diverse groups is the most meaningful preparation. Computer Skills Technology changes so rapidly it is often difficult to keep up with the changes.
It is necessary for managers to have computer skills in order to keep up with these rapid changes. Many of the processes that occur in offices, manufacturing plants, warehouses, and other work environments depend on computers and thus necessitate managers and workers who can skillfully use the technology. Although computers can cause headaches, at the same time they have simplified many of the tasks that are performed in the workplace. Time-Management Skills Because the typical manager is a very busy person, it is important that time be managed effectively.
This requires an understanding of how to allocate time to different projects and activities. A manager’s time is often interrupted by telephone calls, problems with workers, meetings, others who just want to visit, and other seemingly uncontrollable factors. It is up to the manager to learn how to manage time so that work can be completed most efficiently. Good time-management skills can be learned, but managers must be willing to prioritize activities, delegate, deal with interruptions, organize work, and perform other acts that will make them better managers.
Technical Skills Different from computer skills, technical skills are more closely related to the tasks that are performed by workers. A manager must know what the workers who are being supervised are doing on their jobs or assistance cannot be provided to them. For example, a manager who is supervising accountants needs to know the accounting processes; a manager who is supervising a machinist must know how to operate the equipment; and a manager who supervises the construction of a home must know the sequence of operations and how to perform them. Management Thought
There are many views of management, or schools of management thought, that have evolved over the years. What follows is a brief discussion of some of the theories of management that have greatly affected how managers manage today. Classical Thought The classical school of management thought emerged throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Since the beginning of time, managers have needed to know how to perform the functions discussed earlier. The Industrial Revolution emphasized the importance of better management as organizations grew larger and more complex.
As industry developed, managers had to develop systems for controlling inventory, production, scheduling, and human resources. It was the managers who emerged during the Industrial Revolution, many who had backgrounds in engineering, who discovered that they needed organized methods in order to find solutions to problems in the workplace. Behavioral Management Thought It was because the classical management theorists were so machine-oriented that the behavior lists began to develop their thinking. The behavioral managers began to view management from a social and psychological perspective.
These managers were concerned about the well-being of the workers and wanted them to be treated as people, not a part of the machines. Contemporary Management Thought In more recent years, new management thoughts have emerged and influenced organizations. One of these is the sociotechnical system. A system is a set of complementary elements that function as a unit for a specific purpose. Systems theorists believe that all parts of the organization must be related and that managers from each part must work together for the benefit of the organization.
Because of this relationship, what happens in one part of the organization influences and affects other parts of the organization. Closed Management Systems Within the classical and behavioral approaches to management, the managers look only within the organization to improve productivity and efficiency. This is a closed system—the organization operates as though it is in its own environment. Outside influence and information are blocked out. Open Management Systems Another perspective is the open system.
As one would expect, here the organization functions in conjunction with its external environment, acting with and relying upon other systems. Advocates of an open system believe that an organization cannot avoid the influence of outside forces. Summary Management is a very complex process to which this article is but a brief introduction. Many other articles in this encyclopedia provide extensive insight into the many aspects of management. Different aspects of analyzing management definition: If you look up the dictionary definition of management, among many examples you will find clues as to the real definition of management.
This article simply takes an assortment of definitions and looks at what they say and what they imply about management. 1-“Management” (from Old French menagement “the art of conducting, directing”, from Latin manu agere “to lead by the hand”) characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). This definition of management is interesting because it traces the root meaning back to the Latin phrase meaning “to lead by the hand”.
Leading by the hand implies giving direction that is stronger than just a passing suggestion yet still fairly gentle in approach. Leading by the hand also implies that the person doing the leading is first going where the follower is being lead. The leader is not asking the follower to do something he is not willing to do himself. 2-The guidance and control of action required to execute a program. Also, the individuals charged with the responsibility of conducting a program. This definition of management refers to a “program”.
This implies that, for management to be effective there needs to be some type of defined approach or system in place. This system becomes the plan and management is guiding others in following that plan. This is often the downfall of managers. They have no plan or system. As a result their actions seem random to the people they are managing and this leads to confusion and disappointment. This is why it is so important for business managers to have an employee manual. Without the employee manual providing direction, managers will struggle to be fair and balanced in their dealings with employees. -Management: is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Management functions are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their job. This definition is more in depth and tailored toward business management.
Notice that it consists of three primary activities. First, management establishes a plan. This plan becomes the road map for what work is going to be done. Second, management allocates resources to implement the plan. Third, management measures the results to see how the end product compares with what was originally envisioned. Most management failings can be attributed to insufficient effort occurring in one of these three areas. The definition goes on to talk about how management is responsible for measuring details that may not be required presently, but may be useful later on.
These measurements often help determine the objectives in the planning stage. When management is following this type of sequence, it becomes a continuing cycle. Plan, execute, and measure. The measurements become the basis for the next planning stage and so on. 4-Management: is the activity of getting things done with the aid of people and other resources. This definition of management focuses on management as the process of accomplishing work through the efforts of others. Skilled managers can accomplish much more through others than they can through their own single efforts. -Management: Effective utilization and coordination of resources such as capital, plant, materials, And labor to achieve defined objectives with maximum efficiency. This definition of management looks at not only the people but the entire range of resources necessary to follow a plan. Notice how it focuses on efficiency. Management isn’t just getting from point A to point B. It is getting there by choosing the best possible path. Management: The process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people; 2.
Management: The process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of five basic management functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling; that utilize human, financial, and material resources. The first definition looks at the fact that management is getting work done through other people. The second definition divides management up into five components. These components are all parts of the three components (plan, execute, measure) that we looked at above. However the more detailed definition helps show the activities that occur in each of the three phase definition.
The process of planning, leading, organizing and controlling people within a group in order to achieve goals; also used to mean the group of people who do this. Once again, this definition of management addresses accomplishing work through other people. This definition stresses the activities that are necessary for reaching particular goals. Management: the process of achieving the objectives of the business organization by bringing together human, physical, and financial resources in an optimum combination and making the best decision for the organization while taking into consideration its operating environment.
This definition talks about the different components that managers need to control in order to achieve objectives. One differentiator of this definition is the way it considers the operating environment as part of what a manager must understand. Management: The role of conducting and supervising a business This is a broad definition of management that doesn’t consider management as something that can take place outside of a business.
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