Management and Leadership: Overview

In every organization and company, each employee share their own experiences, values, and beliefs to the organization or company. All the experiences, values, and beliefs combined formulate the organizational culture of the company. A poorly organized company can lead to a company’s demise. A company that has a vigorous organizational structure ensures that all employees and management all work well together. Throughout this paper, I will be discussing roles in leadership and management. Also, how the four functions of management support and maintain a healthy organizational structure.
Within each company, each director or leader has a vision. A leader supports and aids there employees to grasp the vision and encourage them to make that vision become a reality. Some organizations have leaders and managers that do not have same perspectives, which could lead to a high turnover rate. When you view an organizations structure, managers needs to view the motivation and leadership given to the employees to ensure that goals are being met.
For example, in my workplace, my manager is one of those types of managers that lead by example. In order for any company or organization to meets its goals, the manager has to keep his or her team motivated and build lasting relationships with their team. If a leader does not lead by example, their employees are less likely to do the work that is requested of them. Leaders and managers also need to know how to delegate tasks, so they are not bombarded with all the work.

If you notice within all organizations, the hirer you are in the company, the less “grunt work” is performed. Four characteristics that are found in good leaders are they believe in open communication, they do not stick with the status quo, they are selective in what they measure, and they have passion for values and culture. All these categories are essential to maintaining a vital organizational culture. When employees are under the impression that there is open communication with their leader, they are more receptive to sharing issues or concerns when problems arise. When there is open door policy, employees are more comfortable in apprising the leader of a situation so that future problems are avoided.
In dealing with management and leaders, all managers are not necessarily leaders and not all leaders know how to manage well. One of the differences between leadership and management is communicational skills. Managers direct people and know how to delegate tasks, leaders know how to motivate there team and are able to acknowledge when they have made mistakes. Managers inform their employees to get the job done in an effective manner. Everyone is drawn to a leader. All great leaders encourage their team to go above and beyond the assigned tasks, to take it to the next level.
One other factor between leaders and managers are that managers usually like to micromanage their team. This type of management style may cause employees to feel uncomfortable along with being aggravated. No one likes being constantly watched over. When an individual is constantly being watched over, it could create a situation where they may become unhappy, which could ultimately lead to them resigning. Leaders put their trust in others. People are naturally more drawn to complete their tasks and goals, and will be more susceptible to wanting to further their career within the organization or company.
Oftentimes managers must deal with employees who do not like one another. Rather than be concerned about any underlying issues, the manager may have a temporary solution in order to get the employees back to work. A leader will investigate any underlying causes and make adjustments or take corrective action if necessary.
Most managers tend to have a transactional leadership style. Transactional leadership does not cause employees to be inspired or excited on concentrating on the overall good of the organization. A transactional leader rules by using their valid authority to give orders. In addition, transactional leaders will give bonuses or rewards for services provided.
By contrast, transformational leaders may have charisma. A transformational leader is one who gets people to rise above his or her own interests in order to achieve the goals of the larger population. A person who reports to a transformation leader tends to be a dedicated worker. Bateman and Snell (2007) state that four skills factor into transformational leadership. The four factors are having a vision, communicating the vision, building trust, and having positive self-regard.
The four functions of management have a part in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture. Since planning involves analyzing the situation, involving employee views and ideas helps employees feel a sense of camaraderie. An employee may have had experienced a similar situation at a previous job and can share how the problem was resolved.
In addition, when employees can be part of the goal plan and selection, they may feel more like a part of the company rather than a drone. Many companies today establish plans based on the input of their employees. The employees are the people who have a better understanding of the inner workings and are usually at the center of the activity. Once the plan is implemented, incentive plans are used to invigorate employees in achieving the goals and ensuring the plans are implemented properly.
Within the organizing function, delegation can help create and maintain a healthy culture. Managers will delegate work to subordinates so that the manager can accomplish more work. Not only does delegation benefit the manager, delegation benefits the employee. The employee is empowered to accomplish a new challenge. Within the challenge, the employee develops new skills that help to advance the employee within the company. Alternatively, the employee may be given additional job duties, which can also help advance the employee.
Bateman and Snell (2007) assert that when managers adopt high ideals for the company, employees in turn are inspired. Even adopting an admirable vision, then conveying the vision repeatedly will cause the vision to become present in the company. Top managers should be visible, out among the employees, and setting examples rather than in a boardroom all day. When employees see upper management involved, more trust is developed. When new people are hired, the company’s values are promoted.
The last function of management, control, plays a part in the culture of an organization. Some companies exercise bureaucratic or market controls with the organization’s culture. The use of such controls can be inadequate in maintaining healthy organization. As more jobs are done with the use of a computer, standardizing a job becomes harder. Each person may have his or her own technique in navigating and using computer programs. Difficulties arise when an employee is instructed to operate a computer program a certain way. Yet the employee may know a different technique that makes the job easier for him or her, or be more effective.
Clan control is not concerned with the organization’s interests. As with organizational culture, in clan control, employees share the values and expectations of the company’s goals. When employee have common goals and are trusting of one another, controls that are more formal are not as necessary. Additionally, a group culture can develop. Group cultures are based on the principles related to the company. In a group culture, leaders tend to be mentors or facilitators.
Two strategies that can be used to maintain a healthy organizational culture are open communication and a code of ethics. Free lines of communication from management down to employees help to create an open environment. Management should meet with employees individually for a few minutes. When a new Director of Human Resources was hired at XYZ, Inc., he made it a point to meet with each employee in the company. Such meetings allowed not only for the employees to meet the new director, but also gave the impression that the director is human, willing to listen to what people have to say.
An open door policy generally means that anyone within a company can speak to upper management without having to go through a chain of command. In addition, when a company sponsors fun activities for employees to break up the workday, trust and communication are built. XYZ, Inc. holds monthly town hall meetings in which the current state of the company is discussed. Recognition is given to new hires, or departments that have excelled at a particular project. XYZ, Inc. also holds company luncheons for some holidays. In 2007, the company provided lunch at a town hall meeting to celebrate the Fourth of July. Watermelon eating and seed spitting contests were part of the festivities.
A code of ethics within a company goes beyond legal compliances. Values must be adopted to ensure a healthy organizational culture. A code of ethics defines those behaviors, which are acceptable within a company. The code should define what is acceptable and the consequences for violating policies or rules. The code of ethics must be followed by everyone. As stated earlier, if employees see a manager violating a code, the employees are less inclined to follow the code. In turn, more behavior that is unethical can follow.
Having a code of ethics as a guideline is beneficial for manufacturing companies. At XYZ, Inc., a certain brand of elevators are built to customer specification. At times, the manufacturing department is under pressure to meet end of month deadlines. However, if a decision was made to cut corners so that money could be saved and the quota was met, consequences could be devastating. One problem that may occur is that a defect could develop that can eventually lead to injury. The injury, in turn, can lead to amounts of money being spent to repair or alter the lift or in worker’s compensation claims.
In conclusion, strategies are used by leaders to promote a healthy organizational culture. The four functions of management play a role in supporting and maintaining a company’s culture. A healthy organizational culture will go beyond the every day duties and ensure company goals are achieved. The values, beliefs, and experiences of each employee blend to create a unique environment within a company. Each person has his or her part in helping the organizational culture.

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