Culture Vocab Chart Word| Definition| Explain| Example| Language| Set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication. | Form of communication used amongst people. | EnglishFrenchBengali| Standard Language| Variant of language that a country’s people seek to use in schools, media, government, etc. | Used for official government business, education, and mass communications. English in AmericaFrench in FranceEnglish in Canada| Dialects| Local or regional characteristics of language| Has different pronunciation and distinctive grammar ad vocab| South: “Y’all” North: “You guys” South: “Fixin’ to” North: “About to”| Isogloss| Geographic boundary within which linguistic feature occurs| separates regions in which different languages exist| Ossetia -European| Mutual Intelligibility| Ability of two people to understand each other when speaking | Understanding what someone else speaks| Bob understand what Billy says. Language families| Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin| Languages that came from same root language| Indo European| Sound Shift| Slight change in word across languages within subfamily or thorough language family | Change of language that affect pronunciation| | Proto-Indo-European| Linguistic hypothesis proposing existence of an ancestral Indo European language| Hearth of ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which link modern languages. Scandinavia to North Africa and North America through parts of Asia to Australia| Backward Reconstruction| Tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants “backward” toward original language | Going backward to original language | “milk” in English, “melk” in Dutch, “milche” in German. | Extinct Language| Language without any native speakers| Language not spoken anymore| Latin, Gothic, Hebrew| Deep Reconstruction| Technique using vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create language that preceded it. Going back to a language’s preceded language| “milk” in English, “melk” in Dutch, “milche” in German| Nostratic| Language believed to be the ancestral language of Proto Indo Europeans| Also for the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus regions| Hungarian, Finnish | Language Divergence| Opposite of language convergence; Process that German linguist August Schleicher suggested| languages are formed when language breaks into dialects due to lack of spatial interaction | French spoken in France is now different from the French spoken in Quebec. Language Convergence| Opposite of language divergence; collapsing of two languages into one| Results from consistent spatial interaction of people with different languages| Balkans where different languages (such as Greek, Albanian, Romania, Bulgarian) all share certain features of grammar| Renfrew Hypothesis| Developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew. Said that 3 areas in and near first agricultural hearth, Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families. | Europe’s Indo European languages, North African and Arabian languages, and languages in present day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Anatolia (Turkey), Western arc of Fertile Crescent, Eastern arc of Fertile Crescent. | Conquest theory| Major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused to Europe | Early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, and started diffusions of European tongues. | Modern day Ukraine. | Commodification | Process in which something is given monetary value| Good or idea is turned into something that has particular value and can be traded in market economy. | Chicken used to be expensive, and only for special occasions.
With battery farming, chicken meat has become a commodity. | Monolingual States| Countries in which one language is spoken| These are countries with only one official language| Japan (Japanese)| Official Language| Language selected often by educated and politically powerful elite| To promote internal cohesion, usually language used in courts and government. | America: EnglishFrance: FrenchMexico: Spanish| Toponym| Place name| Word coined in association with the name of a place. New York = From the Duke of York, Nova Scotia = “New Scotland”, New Jersey = from the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel| Secularism| Ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth| Not to accommodate prescriptions of a deity and promise of comfortable afterlife| America| Monotheistic Religion| One supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in universe| Is the belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God. | Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Polytheistic Religion| Multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in universe| Belief in more than one god| Hinduism, Buddhism, Wicca| Animistic Religion| Inanimate objects possess souls | Can help or hinder human efforts on Earth| Shintoism, Animism. | Universalizing Religion| Belief that there is one true religion that is universal in scope| Religion that wants to take over world| Islam and Christianity| Ethnic Religion| Religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct group of people. Don’t actively seek converts through missionary work| Judaism, Hinduism| Romance Languages| Languages that lay in areas those were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed. | Related languages derived from Vulgar Latin and forming a subgroup of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family. | French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese. Germanic Languages| Languages that reflect expansion of people out of Northern Europe to west and south| Sub-branch of the Indo-European language family. | English, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish. | Slavic Languages| Languages developed as Slavic people migrated from base in present day Ukraine| Close to 2000 years ago| Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Bulgarian| Lingua Franca| Tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and some Arabic. “Common language”, language used among speakers of different languages for purpose of trade and commerce. | English| Pidgin Language| Parts of two or more languages are combined in simplified structure and vocabulary | Simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common. | Name of the Creole language Tok Pisin derives from the English words talk pidgin. Creole Language| Language that began as pidgin language | Later adopted as mother tongue by people in place of mother tongue. | | Cultural Landscape| Visible imprint of human activity and culture on landscape| Imprinted on landscape by the activities of various human occupants | Building, forms, and artifacts| Placelessness| Loss of uniqueness of place | One place looks like the next| Association of Manchester with a distinctive style of music and club culture is relatively recent. Intrafaith boundaries| Boundaries within the same faith| A major religion’s boundaries| Sunni & ShiiteCatholic & Protestant| Interfaith boundaries| Boundaries between different religion| Major religions’ boundaries| Muslims & Christians. | Religious fundamentalism| Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of faith and to influence state policy| A usually religious movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles| Protestant community in the United States in the early 20th century| Shari’a laws| System of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu’ranic law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on interpretation| Women must wear a hijab at all times, or else they will be stoned to death| Jihad| Doctrine within Islam, commonly translated as “Holy War” | Personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to religious standards| defense of religion when attacked with aggressive wars of conquest and expansion| Folk culture| Cultural traits such ad dress mode, dwellings, and tradition| Institutions of usually small, traditional communities. Amish| Popular culture| Cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify| Part of today’s changeable, urban-bases, media-influenced western societies. 2chainz, skinny jeans, Christmas tree| Local culture| Group of people in particular place who see themselves as a collective or community| Share experiences, customs, and traits, work to preserve those traits and customs| Hutterites in North America| Material culture| Art, housing, clothing, sports dances, foods and other similar items| Constructed or created by a group of people| Eating curry, wearing a kimono | Nonmaterial culture| Beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people| Not constructed or created by a group of people| Praying five times a day, French is spoken in France| Hierarchical diffusion | Idea or innovation spreads by passing first among most connected places or people | Leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence | Spread of fashion spreads from level to nest level | Hearth| Area where idea or cultural trait originates| Place of origin| Hearth of corn was from Mexico| Assimilate| People lose originality differentiating traits when they come into contact with another culture | Used to describe immigrant adaption to new places of residence| Mexican teens start acting/dressing more American after they move here. | Custom| Practice routinely followed by a group of people| Another word is tradition| Taking your shoes off before going into a house. | Cultural Appropriation| Culture adopts ustoms and knowledge from other cultures | Uses them for their unadoptable in that particular culture| Native American dream catchers adopted by USA and sold in stores| Neolocalism| Seeking out of regional culture and reinvigoration of it | In response to uncertainty of the modern world. | | Ethnic neighborhood| Situated in larger metropolitan city and constructed by a local culture| In which local culture can practice its customs| Little Haiti in Santa Domingo | Hinduism| One of oldest religions in modern world, originating in Indus River Valley| Doesn’t have a single founder, single theology, or agreement on its origins. | | Buddhism| Enlightenment would come through knowledge, no greed, craving, or desire. Complete honesty. Splintered from Hinduism as reaction to strict social hierarchy by Hinduism| | Caste system| Strict social segregation of people| Basis of ancestry and occupation| India’s Hindu society | Shintoism| Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism| Focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship| | Taoism| Religion founded Lao Tsu and based on “Book of the Way” | Proper form of political rule on the oneness of humanity and nature| | Judaism| Roots and teachings of Abraham, uniting his people to worship only one god| Jews worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the Jews| | Diaspora | Forceful or voluntary dispersal of people from homeland to new place | Population dispersal or involuntary relocation| Jews during the Holocaust| Zionism| Movement to unite the Jews of the Diaspora| Establish a national homeland for them in the promised land. | | Sunni| Adherents to largest branch of Islam, believe in value of family and community in solution of life’s problem| Differ from Shiites in accepting the traditions of Muhammad as authoritative. | | Shiite| Also known as Shiahs, represent Persian variation of Islam | Believe in infallibility and divine right to authority of descendants of Ali. | Pilgrimage| Voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site| Pay respect or participate in a ritual at the site| Hajj| Hajj| Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca| Birthplace of Muhammad| | Authenticity| Accuracy with which a single stereotypical or typecast conveys| Otherwise dynamics and complex local culture or its customs| | Distance decay| Effects of distance on interaction| Greater the distance the less interaction | Mexican would be closer to American than Russian| Time-space compression| Social and psychological effects of living in a world which t-s convergence has rapidly reached high intensity| Associated with work of David Harvey | | Genocide | systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation| Planned elimination of a group of people| Jews during the Holocaust|