Investigatory Project in Biology

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHILI (CAPSICUM ANNUM) EXTRACT An Investigatory Research Presented to Mrs. Presented by CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study . Capsicum annuum is a domesticated species of the plant genus Capsicum native to southern North America and northern South America. Chili has been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BC. There is archaeological evidence at sites located in southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were domesticated more than 6000 years ago and is one of the first cultivated crops in the Central and South Americas that is self-pollinating.
The plant is a perennial, but usually grown as an annual, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0. 5–1. 5 m (20–60 in). The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chili fruit, and numerous varieties are cultivated around the world. Despite being a single species, Capsicum annuum has many cultivars, with a variety of names. In American English it is commonly known as a chili pepper or bell pepper. Hot peppers are used in medicine as well as food in Africa.
It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna and scarlatina maligna, used either as a gargle or administered internally. In this research, antimicrobial activity of chili will be studied. Certain bacteria and fungal species will be the focus of the experiment. Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and fungi like Trichophyton rubrum Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chili (Capsicum annum) extract. This study also intends to answer the following. 1. The effectiveness of the chili extract as an antimicrobial. 2. The response of the bacteria species to the chili extract. 3. The response of the fungal species to the chili extract. Significance of the Study This study would add knowledge in the field of science. This would also be a help in further studies about plants as antimicrobial. Science students and science teachers can use this as a source for future research with regards to this study.
The public would directly benefited by this study. Infections of bacteria and fungi to humans such as pimples, athlete’s foot, skin infection and diarrhea will be aided naturally. Since chili is cheap and highly available, people can easily get and make antimicrobial extract from chili. Moreover, this study may as well be use by future researchers as a resource material. Scope and Limitation of the Study This research would make use extract from chili as antimicrobial. Other natural extracts from other plants are excluded. Antimicrobial activity includes bacteria and fungal species.
Bacteria species consist of Staphylococcus aureus while fungal species consist of Trichophyton rubrum. Dealing with microorganisms might be exposed for contamination. Aseptic technique should be observed. Over 2 plates of microorganisms will be prepared and a many laboratory works will be done. This might lessen the effectiveness of the research data and result due to human cause. That’s why human patience and strength should be employed to avoid incorrect result. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Capsicum Annuum as Plant
Capsicum annuum is a domesticated species of the plant genus Capsicum native to southern North America and northern South America. The three species C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense all evolved from a single common ancestor located somewhere in the northwest Brazil – Columbia area. his species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capiscums. The name annuum means “annual” (from the Latin annus “year”, the plant is not an annual and in the absence of winter frosts can survive several seasons and grow into a large perennial shrub. The C. nnuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates. The single flowers are an off-white (sometimes purplish) color whilst the stem is densely branched and up to 60 centimetres (24 in) tall. When ripe, the fruit may be green, yellow or red. In American English the plant is commonly known as a chili pepper or bell pepper. Sweet peppers are very often used as a bulking agent in cheap ready made meals/take-away food as they are cheap, have a strong flavour, and are colorful. The colorful aspect of peppers increases the visual appeal of the food, making it more appetizing.
Capsaicin, a chemical found in chili peppers, creates a burning sensation once ingested which can last for several hours after ingestion. In British English, the sweet varieties are called red or green peppers, and the hot varieties chillies whereas in Australian and Indian English the name capsicum is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and chilli is often used to encompass the hotter varieties. Uses of Capsicum Annuum The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world.
Hot peppers are used in medicine in Africa and other countries. It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna (acute diptheria) and scarlatina maligna (malignent Scarlet fever, used either as a gargle or administered internally. It is also considered efficacious for a wide variety of symptoms including sore throat nd fever. Microorganisms Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living. Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye.
Microorganisms live in all parts of the biosphere where there is liquid water, including soil, hot springs, on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth’s crust. Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may play a role in precipitation and weather.
Microbes are also exploited by people in biotechnology, both in traditional food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. However, pathogenic microbes are harmful, since they invade and grow within other organisms, causing diseases that kill people, other animals and plants. Antimicrobials An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms[1] such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic).
Disinfectants are antimicrobial substances used on non-living objects or outside the body. The history of antimicrobials begins with the observations of Pasteur and Joubert, who discovered that one type of bacteria could prevent the growth of another. They did not know at that time that the reason one bacterium failed to grow was that the other bacterium was producing an antibiotic. Technically, antibiotics are only those substances that are produced by one microorganism that kill, or prevent the growth, of another microorganism.
Of course, in today’s common usage, the term antibiotic is used to refer to almost any drug that attempts to rid your body of a bacterial infection. Antimicrobials include not just antibiotics, but synthetically formed compounds as well. Antimicrobial nanotechnology is a recent addition to the fight against disease causing organisms, replacing heavy metals and toxins and may some day be a viable alternative. Infections that are acquired during a hospital visit are called “hospital acquired infections” or nosocomial infections.
Similarly, when the infectious disease is picked up in the non-hospital setting it is considered “community acquired”. Natural Antimicrobials Many these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity, and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal.
So, it is worthwhile to study plants and plant products for activity against resistant bacteria. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Materials Chili Forceps Mortal and Pestle Bacteria culture Blender Fungal culture Cheese clothSmall circular absorbant paper Beaker Research Design In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Capsicum annum will be measured quantitatively against bacterial and fungal species.
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) will be qualitatively determined. Plant Collection and Sampling Method Chili (Capsicum annum) plant will be obtained from the local market of Zamboanga City. Mature chili will be use having a usable size of 1/4 inch in diameter. Chili will be purchased using simple random sampling. This will be applied to all chili vendors in the market. They will be washed in sterile water and will be crushed prior to extraction. Extraction Process The 40g crushed chili will be blended until is reaches a smooth texture. The chili soup will be strained by a cheese cloth and extract the juice.
The chili extract will be then set aside for the experiment. Bacterial and Fungal Culture The Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum will be used in the experiment. These microorganisms will be obtained from Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Data Gathering Procedure The MIC will be evaluated on the chili extract showing an antimicrobial activity. From the chili extract, a small circular absorbent paper will be soaked and place on the surface of the cultured microorganism. After 2 days. Result will be observed. The zone of inhibition

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