Immune Response and Hypersensitivity

Axia College Material Appendix C Immune Response and Hypersensitivity Puncture Wound Multimedia Activity After completing the Puncture Wound Multimedia Activity, complete the table below. List the four events of the inflammatory response covered in the activity in the order of occurrence. Rewrite the events in your own words, using vocabulary terms from Ch. 2 of the text. Vascular Events in an Inflammatory Response |Events |Simplified description of event |Professional description of event | |1st |Germs from the nail are introduced below the skin. The skin is broken in some way, in this case by a nail | | | |puncturing the skin. When this occurs, it allows the entry | | | |of pathogens (germs such as bacteria) into the wound. | |2nd |Surrounding cells leak fluid that affects the blood |An immediate local innate response in the infected tissues | | |vessels. is generated by components of the immune system which are | | | |present in those tissues.
Those components of the immune | | | |system include macrophages (a type of white blood cell) and | | | |complement proteins (proteins that are involved in the | | | |initial immune response). |3rd |The fluid affecting the surrounding blood vessels causes |Other immune cells (such as neutrophils), leave the | | |the release of other cells into the tissue. |circulation, attracted by the inflammatory mediators | | | |released by the mast cells and enter the wounded area. | |4th |As the wounded part of the body reacts to the germs, |The neutrophil cells attack the pathogens that have entered | | |certain cells destroy these germs. |the wound and begin to kill them.
In the meantime, another | | | |specialized immune cell, known as the dendrite cell, carried| | | |parts of the dead pathogen back to the nearby lymphatic | | | |system. | Hypersensitivity Give a brief description and example in your own words for each of the four types of hypersensitivity presented in Ch. 2. Hypersensitivity Matrix Type of Hypersensitivity |Description |Example | |Type I: Allergic/Anaphylactic |Anaphylaxis is an acute|Anaphylaxis is often triggered by substances that are injected or ingested and | | |multi-system severe |thereby gain access into the blood stream. An explosive reaction involving the skin,| | |type I hypersensitivity|lungs, nose, throat, and gastrointestinal tract can then result. | | |reaction. | |Type II: Cytotoxic/Cytolytic |Cytotoxic are caused by|The reaction of the antibody attachment leads to the activation of complement | | |antibodies, which |proteins (again, encountered earlier). The complement proteins destroy the person’s | | |attach to a person’s |own blood cells.

Type II reactions often occur in incompatible blood transfusions. | | |own blood cells or | | | |tissue cells. | |Type III: Immune Complex |An immune complex is |After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a | | |formed from the |number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization, phagocytosis, or| | |integral binding of an |processing by proteases. | | |antibody to a soluble | | | |antigen. | |Type IV: Cell-mediated/Delayed|Type IV (cell-mediated)|Cell-mediated immunity is directed primarily at microbes that survive | | |reactions appear 12-72 |in phagocytes and microbes that infect non-phagocytic cells. | | |hours after exposure to| | | |an allergen. | |

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