History Critique Essay

Thailand The earliest inhabitants of what is now Thailand were hunter-gatherers. However about 4,000 BC they began farming. They grew rice. At first the farmers used stone tools but about 3,000 BC bronze was discovered. From about 500 BC the people of what is now Thailand used iron. At first what is now Thailand was divided into small states called Meuang. By 100 AD they were practicing Theravada Buddhism. However the ancestors of modern Thais are believed to have come from southern China. They migrated to Thailand between the 10th century and the 13th century AD.
Meanwhile between the 9th century and the 13th century much of what is now Thailand was ruled by the Khmers, a people from what is now Cambodia. However in the 13th century several small states in Thailand in the Mekong River valley united to form a kingdom called Sukhothai. It is regarded as the first Thai kingdom. However the first Thai kingdom did not last long. It declined in the late 14th century. Meanwhile during the 14th century another kingdom arose in Thailand called Ayuthaya and it annexed the kingdom of Sukhothai. During the 15th century the Kingdom of Ayuthaya continued to grow.
The first Europeans to reach Thailand were the Portuguese in 1511. They were followed by the Dutch in 1605, the English in 1612 and the French in 1662. In 1675 a Greek called Constantine Phaulkon became an official at the court in Thailand. He permitted the French to station soldiers in Thailand. However he was removed from power in 1688 and the French were expelled. Afterwards Thailand adopted an isolationist policy. The Thais cut contact with Europe until the early 19th century. In 1765 the Burmese invaded Ayuthaya and they captured the capital in 1767 and destroyed it.

However in 1769 a general named Phraya Taksin became king and he made a new capital at Thoburi across the river from Bangkok. He also built up an empire. He conquered much of Laos and other parts of Southeast Asia. However King Taksin began to have delusions and he was removed in a coup in 1782. A general named Chao Phraya Chakri replaced him as king. (He is known as Rama I). He had Taksin executed. He also made Bangkok the capital. In 1809 Rama I was succeeded by his son Rama II (1809-1824). He was followed by Rama III (1824-1851). During their reigns Thai culture flourished.
The next king Rama IV or Mongkut allowed the British to live in Thailand. He also allowed them to trade freely. He also signed treaties with many other western countries and he encouraged the study of Western science. Rama V (1868-1901) abolished the custom that subjects must prostrate themselves in the king’s presence. He also abolished slavery and corvee (a tax paid in labour). Rama V also reformed Thailand’s government. In the 19th century Thailand avoided being colonized by Europeans. However in 1893 Rama V was forced to cede Laos to France.
He also ceded Cambodia to France in 1907 and in 1909 he was forced to cede territory in Malaya to Britain. Bangkok (Laem Chabang), Thailand: This huge metropolis is home to more than eight million people. It’s a magical place where graceful dancers perform in shimmering silk gowns, temples with gold-leaf spires harbor graceful Buddha’s, and riverboats cruise a bewildering maze of canals. The only nation in Southeast Asia to escape colonial rule, Bangkok is the nation’s commercial, cultural, and spiritual heart. Attractions: Phuket: Phuket pronounced phuu get, is Thailand’s largest island.
It is 48 km in length, 21 km at its widest, and is in Southern Thailand, on the west-facing Andaman Sea coastline, suspended from the southern tip of Phang Nga Province by a pair of short but substantial road bridges. Regions: | Western Phuket (Bang Thao, Kamala, Karon, Kata, Laem Sing, Mai Khao, Nai Thon and Nai Yang, Patong, Surin) This region is what Phuket is known for the world over. There is a wide variety of beaches, some calm, some totally ruined by millions of visitors each year. Patong is one of the party capitals of Asia. | Southeastern Phuket (Chalong Bay, Cape Panwa, Nai Han, Rawai, Ya Nui) Slightly off-beat beaches that are worth the trip. Chalong Bay is the largest town that acts as a harbour for outgoing boats to Phang Nga Bay. | | Interior Phuket (Bang Rong, Ko Sire, Phuket Town, Phra Taew National Park, Thalang) Besides Phuket Town, the interior of Phuket is pretty much unvisited by foreign visitors. This fertile hilly expanse consists of mangrove forests, fishing villages, rubber and pineapple plantations, small Muslim communities and shrimp farms. The Phra Taew National Park is a nice escape from the tourist crowds, as is the Gibbon Project. | Phang Nga Bay (Ko Bon, Ko Hae, Ko Lon, Ko Mai Thon, Ko Maphrao, Ko Racha, Ko Yao) Famous for its limestone cliffs, caves, mangroves, fishing villages and James Bond Island. | Attractions: * Snorkeling Snorkeling can be enjoyed in sheltered bays all around Phuket. It is particularly enjoyable at easily accessible reefs at Patong, Karon and Kata beaches. Fins mask and snorkel can be rented on a daily basis from shops all over the island. Full and half day trips are available to the islands surrounding Phuket. Most popular are Ko Hae, Ko Racha Yai, Ko Khai (a hidden gem in the Phang Nga Bay), and Ko Phi Phi.
There are many tours available at very cheap rates and the speedboats will be filled with up to 65 people. Research your options before signing up for any tour. * Snorkeling trips to Racha ; Phi Phi Islands Agencies sell all-inclusive day trips from all over Phuket, and most everywhere else on Phuket Island. Prices for group tours range from 1,400 baht/person to 3,900 baht/person. Quality and safety seem to match the prices paid. The cheaper speedboat tours take approx. 30-35 passengers per 2-engine speedboat and 50-60+ passengers on 3-engine speedboats.
Very cheap tours take over 100 people in a speedboat. The higher-end tours take approx 15 to 18 passengers on 2-engine speedboats. Insist on knowing the exact number of guests that will be on the boat. Keep in mind that tour desks will tell you anything to get your money, as they receive up to 65% commissions from the lower-end tours. It is always best to contact the company running the tour directly to ensure that you are getting what you pay for. The more people on the boat the longer it takes to get on and off at each stop, decreasing the time one gets to spend off the boat.
A packed boat is not very fun or safe when there are large waves. Private companies providing small group tours are few (currently only 3 – 1 is listed below). Full day tour prices range from 3,200 baht to 3,900 (no discounts are offered; can only be booked direct). The tours include stops at all the major sights, higher quality lunches (from picnic to seaside sit-down restaurant meals), full sets of snorkeling equipment, minibus transport, fresh tropical fruits, snacks ; drinks on-board, foreign owner/guide, small groups, attention to safety, and national park fee.
Prices vary based on services, amenities, and extras that are provided. * Snuba diving is the safest and easiest way to try diving on holiday in Phuket. Popular in Hawaii, the Caribbean, Mexico, and Japan, Snuba gives an introduction into the world of diving. No certification required, children 8+, just like scuba diving except easier. SNUBA trips go to most Phuket dive sites. No heavy equipment to wear, no long classes, maximum depth of 7 meters, professional dive guides accompany each group. * Snorkeling and scuba diving * The Phuket Dive Shop, Patong Beach, ? 66 87 8882789 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +66 87 8882789 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting ([email protected] com). Live aboard at Phuket and Similans. PADI Scuba and IDC Courses. Scuba ; Snorkeling for the whole family. On-line bookings 10% discount. edit * Phuket-Diver, Snorkeling and scuba diving, gear rental, maps and information. edit * Thailand Divers, Day trips to Ko Racha Yai for either scuba diving or snorkeling. A full day trip can provide amazing scenery both above and below the surface. Trips are available daily, all year round. dit * Underwater Holidays-Similan Islands Liveaboards, ? +66 76 292052 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +66 76 292052 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting, Scuba diving holidays to the Similan National Marine Park. edit * Sailing and yachting Phuket has become the sailing and yachting center of Thailand and adjacent countries. It’s the home of Six the Senses Phuket Raceweek [, King’s Cup Regatta, Phang Nga Bay Regatta , the Phuket International Boat Show (PIMEX), four marinas, two yacht clubs, Ao Chalong Yacht Club (ACYC) and Phuket Yacht Club (PYC) and some well-sheltered anchorages which are teeming with yachts.
The marinas are all located at the eastern side of the island which makes them an ideal starting point to explore the natural wonders of Phang Nga Bay. An entire fleet of traditional junk-rigged boats is located there, offering day trips. But as well real sailing yachts are on offer for this. Phuket has sailing yachts of virtually every size and for all budgets on offer to explore the surrounding beautiful islands on a yacht charter. Sailing Thailand Island Cruises operates a wide array of sailing catamarans from budget to luxury, most of them located in Chalong Bay.
SweetDreamers also many different sailing tours from Chalong Bay in Southeastern Phuket. Small sailing craft like Hobie Cats and Lasers are available at most of the tourist hot spots on the west side, e. g. Patong and Kata. * Boat Charter Thailand, ? +66 88 490 7290. Sailing yachts, motor boats, bare boat or crewed, luxury charters, fishing trips, traditional boat tours. Cambodia Cambodia has a rich and fascinating history. The first humans in Cambodia were Stone Age hunters and gatherers. However farming was introduced into Cambodia about 2,300 BC.
The first farmers in Cambodia used stone tools but from about 1,500 BC the Cambodians used tools and weapons made from bronze. By about 500 BC they had learned to use iron. The first civilization in the area arose about 150 AD in the Mekong River delta in South Vietnam. This civilization was known to the Chinese who called it Fu-nan. While Fu-nan was trading with the Chinese Cambodian society grew more sophisticated. Settlements grew larger. So did kingdoms. By the beginning of the 7th century AD all of Cambodia was highly civilized.
At first Cambodia was divided into rival states. However at the beginning of the 9th century a king named Jayavarman II founded the Khmer Empire in Cambodia. Like all early civilizations the Khmer Empire was an overwhelmingly agricultural society, although there were many craftsmen the great majority of the people were farmers. Their staple diet was rice. The Khmers were animists. They believed that spirits inhabited natural phenomena such as the earth and trees. Later Indian religions (Hinduism and Buddhism) were introduced but they co-existed with traditional beliefs.
The rich and powerful built fine temples (the only stone buildings in Cambodia). They were richly decorated with fine stone carvings. The most famous temple is Angkor Wat which was built in the early 12th century. For Cambodia was prosperous and powerful. Then about 1000 AD King Jayavarman V was killed. Civil war followed until Suryavarman I founded another dynasty. By 1011 he was in control of Cambodia. However his dynasty only lasted until 1080 when it was replaced by another. In 1177 a people called the Chams from Champa (on the coast of Vietnam) invaded Cambodia.
However King Jayavarman VII managed to drive them out by 1183 and between 1203 and 1220 he was able to force the Chams to submit to him. Nevertheless by the mid-13th century the Khmer kingdom was in decline. In 1431 the Thais captured the Cambodian capital, Angkor. Afterwards it was abandoned and new capital was founded at Phnom Phen. By the mid-16th century Angkor was overgrown by the jungle and it was accidentally rediscovered by a Cambodian king. During the 16th century Cambodian power continued to decline. At the end of the century Cambodia fell under Thai suzerainty (loose control).
In 1594 the Thais captured the capital. After that they dominated the region. From the middle of the 17th century the power of Vietnam grew. In the early 17th century the Cambodians controlled parts of what is now South Vietnam. They held a port called Prey Nokor. (Later it was renamed Saigon). In the late 17th century Prey Nokor fell under Vietnamese rule. During the 18th century Cambodia found itself squeezed between two powerful neighbors, Thailand and Vietnam. The Thais invaded Cambodia several times in the 18th century and in 1772 they destroyed Phnom Phen.
In the last years of the 18th century the Vietnamese also invaded Cambodia. The Cambodian king was forced to look to the Thais for protection. In return Thailand took north-west Cambodia. Sihanoukville: Located on the coast of Cambodia, about halfway between Thailand and Vietnam, on the Bay of Thailand. A spread out tourist town for both foreigners and local people from all over the country. Three sides of the town are bordered by tropical beaches and islands. Filled with empty beaches, crowded beaches, seafood, restaurants, bars, Buddhist Temples, casinos, hotels, and more beaches.
At several hundred places, English is spoken; and many French speakers are here as well. About 30 other languages are spoken at various guesthouses and restaurants. Attractions: Beaches and Islands The town of Sihanoukville is surrounded on 3 sides by the Bay of Thailand. From the beaches and surrounding hills, many of the country’s small islands can be seen. Many of the beaches are filled with grass hut restaurants and bars, some of the beaches are rocky, a couple are big resorts, and some are pure sandy beach. | Activities Many vacation activities around town are related to the beaches.
Swimming and sunning, trips to the islands, fishing, and snorkeling. Within town, there are many themed restaurants and bars owned by people from all over the world. Buddhist temples, mountain biking, dirt biking, walking around downtown and the central market, shopping, and seeing the Cambodian culture are also popular activities. Scuba Diving is also very popular. | Day Trips Many close by stops await you outside downtown Sihanoukville. The fishing village at Stung Hauv, Kbal Chay Waterfalls, Ream National Park, day trips to the islands.
You can even holiday in the coastal towns of Kampot, Kep and Bokor Mountain, just 2 hours away. | Night Life Daylight ends around 6pm here, and the vacation continues. Many beach restaurants stay open until the last customer leaves. Restaurants with French, Japanese, Italian, Indian and many other cuisines come to life. Some bars and the casinos are open 24 hours a day. | Singapore While the earliest known historical records of Singapore are shrouded in the mists of time, a third century Chinese account describes it as “Pu-luo-chung”, or the “island at the end of a peninsula”.
Later, the city was known as Temasek (“Sea Town”), when the first settlements were established from AD 1298-1299. During the 14th century, this small but strategically located island earned a new name. According to the legend, Sang Nila Utama, a Prince from Palembang (the capital of Srivijaya), was out on a hunting trip when he caught sight of an animal he had never seen before. Taking it to be a good sign, he founded a city where the animal had been spotted, naming it “The Lion City” or Singapura, from the Sanskrit words “simha” (lion) and “pura” (city).
At this time, the city was then ruled by the five kings of ancient Singapura. Located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula, the natural meeting point of sea routes, the city served as a flourishing trading post for a wide variety of sea crafts, from Chinese junks, Indian vessels, Arab dhows and Portuguese battleships to Buginese schooners. The next important period in the history of Singapore was during the 19th century, when modern Singapore was founded. At this time, Singapore was already an up and coming trading post along the Malacca Straits, and Britain realized the need for a port of call in the region.
British traders needed a strategic venue to refresh and protect the merchant fleet of the growing empire, as well as forestall any advance made by the Dutch in the region. The then Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (now Bengkulu) in Sumatra, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore on 29 January 1819, after a survey of the neighboring islands. Recognizing the immense potential of the swamp covered island, he helped negotiate a treaty with the local rulers, establishing Singapore as a trading station.
Soon, the island’s policy of free trade attracted merchants from all over Asia and from as far away as the US and the Middle East. In 1832, Singapore became the centre of government for the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the advent of the telegraph and steamship, Singapore’s importance as a centre of the expanding trade between the East and West increased tremendously. By 1860, the thriving country had a population that had grown from a mere 150 in 1819 to 80,792, comprising mainly Chinese, Indians and Malays.
But the peace and prosperity of the country suffered a major blow during World War II, when it was attacked by the Japanese aircrafts on 8 December 1941. Once regarded as an impregnable fortress, Singapore fell under the Japanese invasion on 15 February 1942. It remained occupied by the Japanese for the next three and half years, a time marked by great oppression and an immense loss of lives. When the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the island was handed over to the British Military Administration, which remained in power until the dissolve of the Straits Settlement comprising Penang, Melaka and Singapore.
In March 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. In 1959, the growth of nationalism led to self-government, and the country’s first general election. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won a majority of 43 seats and Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of Singapore. In 1961, Singapore joined Malaya and merged with the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo to form Malaysia in 1963. However, the merger proved unsuccessful, and less than two years later on 9 August 1965, Singapore left Malaysia to become an independent and sovereign democratic nation.
On 22 December that year, Singapore finally became an independent republic. Today, you can experience Singapore’s rich historical heritage by visiting many of the national monuments, museums and memorials located around the city. On your trip here, remember to take a walk along one of the many heritage trails or visit the well-known landmarks for a complete Singapore journey. Attractions: * Universal Studios Singapore Universal Studios Singapore is located in the Resort World Sentosa, which includes the Integrated Resort has just opened officially in April of 2010.
Each set foot in the various zones, you will experience a different feel. Universal Studios Singapore is divided into 7 zones, Madagascar, the Palace of Far Far Away from the world of Shrek was the first in the world, The Lost World where you can find a world of dinosaurs and Waterworld, Ancient Egypt – a world full of ancient Egyptian mummies, Sci-fi – a futuristic city and the last two zones of the theme of a famous city in America that is Hollywood and New York. Universal Studio Singapore become the top tourist attractions of Singapore. * Singapore Zoo
Singapore Zoo is one of the major tourist attractions in Singapore. Supplemented by thousands of rare animals make kids would love to see the uniqueness of each animal that they had never seen their lifetime. At the time the sun began to set, you can enjoy a different atmosphere at the Night Safari. Singapore Zoo also provides a vehicle for children’s play Rainforest Kidzworld. Wave of lively children waiting in the water play area, with themes such as wildlife parks wet dream! For the game more exciting, young and old can ride to the animal-themed carousel. * Singapore Botanical Gardens
This forest is located in the middle of town. This small forest is right next to Gleneagles hospital. Singapore Botanic Gardens has a fairly complete collection of plants. Plants is almost gone or going extinct direservasi here. For admission to the Singapore Botanic Garden is free of charge. This garden has an area of ?? approximately 64 acres, in this top tourist attractions you can enjoy the scenery and lush green trees. There is also a swan lake (Swan Lake), located not far from the entrance. The scenery was hard to find in the city of Singapore. * Boat Quay and Clarke Quay
Boat Quay and Clarke Quay are filled with restaurants, pubs and clubs, so the atmosphere here was crowded and mixed up, loud music to light jazz mixed into one. This place was visited by the builders clubbing, young executives who just got home from work, couples who want to enjoy a romantic dinner, and also many foreign tourists. * Singapore Flight Experience Taste it ride or drive a Boeing 737-800NG aircraft the worlds most popular and most successful aircraft – you can feel the flight with an experienced instructor who will help you through all aspects of aviation.
With more than 20,000 airports around the world in a data bank and a full 180 degrees of visual and most advanced cockpit and the sound quality is very similar to the original sound truly unforgettable experience. * Singapore Flyer This is the world’s largest Ferris current, high reached 165 meters. Offers you a breathtaking 360 ° panoramic view of Singapore and the region (opening early 2008). Located in Marina Bay, this vehicle is next to the Retail Terminal has three levels, with a wide selection of shops and food outlets.
There is a central atrium that leads to a lush tropical forest, and an outdoor theater that will be a stage show. * Singapore Science Centre For young scientists and future science and technology experts, the Singapore Science Centre has been recognized that this world will surely stimulate your brain with over 850 interactive rides that describe the wonders and beauty of science. Hours: Science Centre (10. 00 am to 18:00 pm); Omni-Theatre (10:00 am to 20:00 pm). Closed on Monday except holidays and school holidays. * National Museum of Singapore
National Museum of Singapore is Singapore’s oldest museum with the spirit of innovation of the youngest and most innovative. Designed to be a public museum, the National Museum of Singapore prides itself with a sophisticated and diverse museum introduces ways of presenting history to redefine conventional museum experience. More than just a room for exhibitions and artifacts, the Museum will also distinguish itself through a challenging and vibrant festivals and events that will enhance creative power in the culture and heritage * Little India Singapore
This is a great place. You can find lots of new things here. Start of stalls selling fresh fruit and sweets to India with unique stalls selling clothes and shoes with cheap prices. * Marina Bay Sands Marina Bay Sands is one of the two Integrated Resort in Singapore’s new in the open in 2010. After the Resort World Sentosa first operation in early April 2010. Marina Bay Sands is located in the Marina Bay area, joined with Singapore icons that had already stood up like a statue of the Merlion, Esplanade and Singapore Flyer. Marina Bay Sands has very complete facilities.
Guaranteed you can find all you need to be available in this place without having to get out of this region such as casino, sand sky park, hotel, restaurant, cafe there is also a Food Kiosk that provides local flavor from the chicken rice, curry Indian team and sum up western-style roast chicken and sandwiches. In addition, the Marina Bay resort is a paradise for the shopaholic. Equipped with a luxury shopping centers are also a variety of world-class retailers and restaurants make this place is the biggest luxury shopping mall in Singapore. Malaysia
The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age hunter-gatherers. They arrived as early as 8,000 BC. Later Stone Age farmers came to Malaya and displaced them. (The hunter-gatherers continued to exist but they retreated into remote areas). The farmers practiced slash and burn agriculture. They cleared an area of rain forest by burning it then grew crops. After a few years the land would be exhausted and the farmers would clear a new area. However within a few years the old area would become covered in vegetation and would become fertile again. After 1,000 BC metal-using farmers came to Malaya.
They made tools from bronze and iron and they settled along the coast and along rivers. They lived partly by fishing, partly by growing crops. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD centralized states arose in Malaya. The greatest was Kedah in the North. The Malayans became highly civilized. Malayan civilization was heavily influenced by India. (Malayans traded with India from the 3rd century AD. After that contact with India was common). Malayan laws and writing show Indian influence. The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were also introduced into Malaya at that time.
In the 7th and 8th centuries the state of Srivijaya of Sumatra rose to dominate much of Malaya. It was a kingdom in Sumatra with its capital at Palembang. Srivijaya controlled the coasts of Java, the Malay Peninsula and part of Borneo. However the Srivijayans only really controlled the coast. Their influence did not extend far inland. The prosperity of Srivijaya was based on trade with both India and China. Srivijaya controlled the Melaka Straits, which were the main passage between the Indian Ocean and China Sea. As a result it grew rich and powerful. Srivijaya was able to dominate the region until the 11th century.
Then its power declined and by the 13th century Srivijaya had lost control completely. Later Melaka rose to dominate Malaya. A man named Parameswara founded it at the end of the 14th century. He became the ruler of Temasik on Singapore Island. However the Thais overthrew him. Parameswara fled with some followers and settled by a river called Bertram. According to legend when he was hunting a mouse deer turned and kicked one of his dogs. Parameswara took this as an omen and decided to found a settlement there. Since he was standing under a Melaka tree at the time he named it Melaka.
Parameswara converted to Islam. (Islam first reached the region during the 8th century. It made many converts between the 14th and 16th centuries). During the 15th century the new settlement prospered and grew. The wealth and power of Melaka was based on trade with Arab, Chinese and Indian ships sailing there. The great wealth of the city-state of Melaka came to the notice of the Portuguese. In 1511 they sent an expedition led by Alfonso de Albuquerque to capture it. Melaka soon fell to the Portuguese artillery. However the son of the Sultan of Melaka founded Johor. Kuala Lumpur (Port Klang):
Kuala Lumpur or simply called KL by locals, is the federal capital and the largest city in Malaysia. Literally meaning “muddy river confluence” in Malay, Kuala Lumpur has grown from a small sleepy Chinese tin-mining village to a bustling metropolis of around 6. 5 million (city-proper population of 1. 8 million) in just 150 years. A cultural melting pot with some of the world’s cheapest 5-star hotels, cheap, great shopping, even better food and some of nature’s wonders in just an hour away, this dynamic city has much to offer for every visitor. Attractions: KL is mainly known for its eating and shopping.
Other activities include usual urban sports such as golfing, cycling, running, jogging and horse riding. If you’re into rock climbing, the Batu Caves in the Northern suburbs is popular. However given Malaysia’s stunning terrain, you’re better off heading to other places for anything more strenuous or challenging. Several good theatres and performance halls have emerged as part of Malaysia’s drive to encourage greater cultural expression. These include the National Theatre (Istana Budaya) and the KL Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in the northern part of the city, the KL Philharmonic in the Twin Towers, and the Actors Studio at Lot 10.
Leading museums in the city centre are the National Museum, which covers the region’s history, and the well-regarded Islamic Arts Museum, which houses a small but captivating collection. Pampering and spas can be found in several five-star hotels and independent centers in the Golden Triangle. There’s also nail parlors and beauty salons, which are generally good value, there’s also high-end ones offering similar services for a premium. Reflexology and foot massage places are everywhere, especially in Bukit Bintang in the Golden Triangle and in Chinatown. Kuala Lumpur also has many theme parks around the city and in the surrounding cities.
The most famous of these parks is Sunway Lagoon in the neighboring city of Subang Jaya. The theme park has rides, a huge water park, an extreme park for adventure junkies, a scream park for those wanting a good scare, and a petting zoo for children. Sunway Lagoon is a 40 minute drive from central Kuala Lumpur in good traffic and can be reached by bus or taxi. You can also watch the local football match at the KLFA Stadium in Cheras. Kuala Lumpur FA is a football team based in Kuala Lumpur and currently plays in the top division of football in Malaysia. the Malaysia Super League. Match schedule and fixture can be seen at the KLFA website.
Skyscraper Gazing – glass and steel abound, but only one (rather a pair) shine. However, the view from the KL Tower is cheaper and better than that from the Twin Towers. While KL is more of a concrete jungle compared to other parts of the country, there are some natural gems that are accessible by public transport. Among them are: FRIM Forest Reserve: You can get to FRIM via KTM Komuter. Stop at Kepong and grab a short taxi ride. The hikes are easy and you can go up a canopy walkway for RM5 to get a good view of KL on a clear day. There is a nice tea house in the FRIM compound where you can sample various types of local teas and snacks.
Get there early as it is more likely to rain later in the day. Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve : Located close to KL Tower, this urban jungle is a good respite from the city heat. The forest provides for an easy trek that you can enjoy on your own; but the many specimens are likely more appreciated through guided tours which are free and can be arranged from KL Tower. Nature Escapes Malaysia is a good website for more details on natural trails located within or a short drive away from KL. * KL Bird Park (free-flight walk-in aviary), 920, Jalan Cenderawasih, Taman Tasik Perdana (Next to Islamic Art Museum in the City Centre), ? 60 3 22721010 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +60 3 22721010 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting,. 9AM-6PM. Great semi-wild habitat for many different species of mostly Asian birds. The Bird Park allows you to approach quite close to the birds which are skittish but not fearful for some very nice photos. A bit pricey, but makes for a nice long day in a mostly shaded area. Feedings and shows throughout the day give something to see at any time, and the 20+ acres provide plenty of area to walk and explore. The photo booth offers a wide array of tamed birds that will happily sit on you and pose for photos for a small price (RM8 per erson: your camera, 2 birds; RM25 per print: glossy printout of your group covered in birds). Concession stands are priced fairly and offer drinks, ice cream, etc. RM48 (adult), RM38 (child). edit Near the KL Convention Centre is the Aquaria KLCC which contains some 5,000 varieties of tropical fish. Penang: Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south.
Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the eighth most populous. It is composed of two parts – Penang Island, where the seat of government is, and Seberang Perai (formerly, and occasionally Province Wellesley) on the Malay Peninsula. Highly urbanized and industrialized Penang is one of the most developed and economically important states in the country, as well as a thriving tourist destination. Penang has the third-highest Human Development Index in Malaysia, after the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor.
Its heterogeneous population is highly diverse in ethnicity, culture, language, and religion. A resident of Penang is colloquially known as a Penangite. Attractions: * Penang Hill Ayer Itam Penang Hill, or Flagstaff Hill (Bukit Bendera) as it is officially known, rises 821 meters above sea level, providing a welcome respite from the heat down below. One of the most popular attractions in Penang, a trip up Penang Hill is something that is not to be missed when visiting this island; breathtaking panoramic views of the whole island awaits you at the top, as far as the eyes can see.
On a clear day, you can even see as far as Seberang Perai. A funicular train takes you all the way up to the top of the hill in half an hour. On top you will find a restaurant, a Hindu temple, a church, a mosque and a snake show where you can take photos with a tame python for a fee. * Kek Lok Si Temple Ayer Itam Arguably the largest Buddhist temple complex in Southeast Asia, Kek Lok Si Temple stands on top of a hill in the little town of Air Itam. Founded more than a hundred years ago, its temple complex is filled with beautifully-landscaped gardens and sacred temples.
A striking seven-tiered pagoda called The Pagoda of 1000 Buddha’s – which combines Thai, Chinese and Burmese styles in one structure – houses a stunning collection of Buddha statues made from all sorts of precious materials. Also can be found within the temple complex are the statues of The Four Heavenly Kings, guarding the four points of the compass – North, South, West and East – with the statue of The Laughing Buddha in the middle. * Penang Road Georgetown Penang’s version of Hollywood’s Rodeo Drive, Penang Road is arguably the most important thoroughfare on the island.
A mixture of nouveau-riche and old-world heritage, it runs the length from Lebuh Farquhar in the north, to Jalan Gurdwara in the south. Brightly lit, Penang Road is divided into four main sections and is best known for its Upper Penang Road part which acts as the island’s party central. Hemmed in on one side by The Garage nightclub and the City Bayview Hotel, there’s a variety of upscale restaurants, karaoke joints and nightclubs here, plus a number of fashionable boutiques and antique shops.
Penang Road is the site for the popular Chowrasta Market as well as the monthly Little Penang Street Market. * Penang War Museum Bukit Maung Built by the British army right on top of Bukit Maung, the War Museum bore witness to the fall of the British army in the hands of the Japanese invaders, making it a significant historical point in Penang. The ancient fortress holds a dark story from the time when it was transformed into a Japanese army base; tales of war prisoners being tortured for information color the walls of the fortress.
As a result, Bukit Maung earns the reputation of a haunted location, sending chills down the spines of locals who daren’t go up the hill after dark. Turned into a War Museum by a local three decades later after a period of restoration, the fortress still maintains its underground tunnels and ventilation shafts, ammunition bunkers, logistic centre, canon firing bays, sleeping quarters, cook houses and medical infirmary. * Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion Leith Street Built on the principles of Feng Shui over seven years from 1896 to 1904 by a eam of master craftsmen from China, the award-winning Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion was once the abode of an influential Nanyang industrialist and a first-class Mandarin in the Manchu government, who had made Penang his home in the early 1890s. The house’s beautiful, intricate details and lush interior have been well-preserved and restored throughout the years, representing the best of 18th and 19th-century Chinese architecture, which also happens to be one of the three traditional Chinese mansions left outside of China. * Fort Cornwallis Lebuh Light
Named after Charles Cornwallis, the Governor General of India, Fort Cornwallis is one of the most well-known landmarks in Penang. The fortress’ 10-feet walls are laid out in the shape of a star, and within those walls, some of the original structures built over a century ago can still be seen – a chapel, some prison cells, ammunition storage area, a harbour light, the original flagstaff and some old bronze cannons, which includes the infamous 17th-century Dutch cannon called ‘Seri Rambai’, believed by the locals to have an encouraging effect on women’s fertility.
Originally built out of wood, this historical attraction now houses a tourist information kiosk, a cafe, and open-air amphitheatre, a history gallery, a souvenir centre and tour guides to show visitors around and provide them with a peek into the fortress’ history. * Tropical Spice Garden Teluk Bahang Featuring over 500 exotic species of flora and fauna, the magnificent Tropical Spice Garden is a living museum of botanical wonders spread over eight acres of lush nature conservation land.
With 11 garden trails and stream crossings, waterfalls and structures made of recycled organic materials, this award-winning attraction also features a Spice Museum, a Spice Cafe (where you can get a full view of Teluk Bahang while sipping herbal tea on the open terrace) and a Gift Centre (where you can buy organic gift items and souvenirs which include fresh spices, citronella mosquito repellent, sandalwood soaps, massage oils and perfume oils). * Penang Tropical Fruit Farm Teluk Bahang On the hilly terrain of Teluk Bahang, approximately 800 feet above sea level, the Tropical Fruit Farm flourishes with all sorts of tropical and ub-tropical fruit trees, from durians to West Indian cherries. Spread over 25 acres, the orchard was developed for the conservation of rare and exotic fruits, as well as a means to promote local fruits to visitors both local and international. Boasting over 250 types of fruit including some rare and exotic ones originating from faraway lands such as the Caribbean and Central Africa, the orchards also features only organic produce, using organic fertilizers instead of chemicals and pesticides. * Penang Khoo Khongsi Georgetown
The Khoo Khongsi is a Chinese clan house for individuals with the same surname – in this case, Khoo. The clan house represents the family’s social and spiritual commitments between extended relations, ancestors and the outside community. Embodying the triumphs of the Khoo family, the Penang Khoo Khongsi – also known as Dragon Mountain Hall – is quite an impressive architectural feat that personifies good luck and wealth. Stone carvings adorn the entrance hall and pavilions, fantastic murals portraying birthdays, weddings and most memorably, the 36 divine guardians sprinkle the interior.
Overhead, massive paper lamps cast the abode in an orange glow and stunning ceramic sculptures of immortals, carp fish and dragons dance across the roof ridges. * Wat Chaiya Mangkalaram Burmah Road A Thai temple built in 1845, Wat Chaiya Mangkalaram houses the giant Reclining Buddha statue. Measuring 33 meters long, the statue is said to be the third largest of its kind. It signifies Buddha’s total detachment from worldly matters during the last days of his life, and the statue is said to be Buddha’s final resting position before he dies.
Besides the enchanting reclining Buddha, you can also find smaller Buddha statues in varying guises and positions around the temple, as well as those of Thai deities. There are also colorful murals depicting Buddha’s life story. Sri Lanka About 500 BC when a people called the Sinhalese migrated there from India. According to legend the first settlers were led by a man named Vijaya. According to tradition Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka in 260 BC by a man named Mahinda. It soon became an integral part of Sinhalese culture. However at first Sri Lanka was divided into different states.
A man named Dutthagamani (161-137 BC) united them into a single kingdom. As well as being a powerful ruler Dutthagamani was a great builder and he erected palaces and temples. The staple diet of the Sri Lankan people was rice but to grow rice needs to stand in water. However in Sri Lanka’s hot climate water soon evaporated. Some water was provided by rain in the rainy season (October to April) but it was not enough. To gain extra water the people dammed streams and rivers. However in time it became the ruler’s responsibility to provide water for farming.
King Mahensa (274-303) built large reservoirs and irrigation canals to take water from one area to another. The network of reservoirs and canals gradually became bigger and more complex. In the 2nd 3rd and 4th centuries AD Sri Lanka became a rich kingdom. She traded with India, China, Persia and Ethiopia. however from the 5th century onwards Sri Lanka suffered from invasions from India. In the 10th century the Chola kingdom became powerful in southern India. In 993 the Cholas captured northern Sri Lanka and they made Polonnaruwa the capital. In1017 they captured the south.
However the Sinhalese continued to resist and in 1030 the Cholas withdrew from Rohana, in the Southeast. In 1070 the Sinhalese ruler Vijayabahu recaptured the north. However after his death in 1111 weak rulers succeeded him. Sri Lanka broke up into independent states. Then in 1153 Parakrama Bahu the Great became king of the realm of Dakkinadesa. This great ruler reunited Sri Lanka and he repaired the irrigation system. He died in 1183. In the 13th century Sri Lankan power declined. There were repeated invasions from India and political instability.
The irrigation system began to breakdown and the people drifted to the Southwest. In 1255 the capital Polonnaruwa was abandoned. In the 13th century the Tamils settled in the north of Sri Lanka and by 1505 Sri Lanka was divided into 3 areas. In the north lived Tamils. There was a Sinhalese kingdom in the Southwest based in Kotte and another in the centre and east based in Kandy. Trincomalee: Trincomalee is a major port city in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka and lies on the east coast of the island, about 113 miles south of Jaffna. It is also the administrative capital of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
It has a population of 99,135. [1] The city is built on a peninsula, which divides the inner and outer harbors. Overlooking the Kottiyar Bay, Trincomalee is one of the main centers of Tamil speaking culture on the island. The city is home to the famous ancient Koneswaram temple alluded to in its historic Tamil name Thirukonamalai from which its anglicized name is derived, and has been a sea port that has played a major role in the maritime and international trading history of Sri Lanka. It is referred to as Gokanna in Pali or Gokarna in Sanskrit.
The Bay of Trincomalee’s harbour is renowned for its large size and security; unlike every other in the Indian Sea, it is accessible to all types of craft in all weathers. The beaches are used for surfing, scuba diving, fishing and whale watching. The city also has the largest Dutch fort in Sri Lanka. It is home to major Sri Lankan naval bases and a Sri Lankan Air Force base. Attractions: * Whale watching The best season in trinco for whale watching is February, March, April. Most other days during seasonal times until October you can see dolphins in the early morning.
If you go in a fishing boat they only take a maximum of 4 persons as when you spot a whale you have to give chase quickly to catch them. Trincomalee is one of the deepest natural harbors in the world and thus the reason the blue whale ; sperm whales choose to come here to mate. * World War 2 Cemetery North of Trinco town, on the road to Nilaveli, is the British war cemetery. It’s well worth stopping off for a quick look if you’re heading that way. If you’re particularly interested in WW2 cemeteries and history then there’s enough to keep you occupied here for a while.
It is the biggest British cemetery in Sri Lanka, partly due to the Japanese air raid on Trinco in 1942. Talk to the man in charge – he can show you lots of documents and historical artifacts from the time. Many British people come here to visit the graves of relatives – many don’t actually know where they were buried. If so this is a good place to find out as there are extensive records. The cemetery has been caught in crossfire and bombed countless times during recent decades but it’s still well kept and in good condition. * The Bay The bay (or rather bays) are what Trinco is most famous for.
There are three main bays – Back Bay to the north of Fort Frederick, Dutch Bay to the east of the town, and the Inner Harbour to the west. Trinco is on a peninsula so the town is surrounded by water. The Inner Harbour is the main deep-water port, but all three are used for fishing and sailing. There isn’t really anything to see, apart from the fishing boats coming in at the end of the day, but there are always lots of people about and a lively atmosphere. Take a walk around Dutch Bay at sunset and there are fishermen bringing in their catch, kids playing football, women sat around chatting and cooking and so on. Pillaiyar Kovil Another interesting Hindu temple is Pillaiyar Kovil on Dockyard Road. While on the subject of religious buildings, there are also several mosques (try the North Coast Road) and churches worth a look too. * Sacred tree Behind Komeswaram Temple is a sacred tree, planted precariously on the cliff face. Worshippers tie strips of cloth to the branches as a prayer offering. Even if you don’t want to tie some cloth, lean over to the tree and see the sheer 100 metres drop below. Unless you’re afraid of heights of course! * Lovers Leap Next to Koneswaram Temple is Lovers Leap.
The name kind of gives it away but it is indeed a favorite suicide spot, with a sheer drop to the ocean crashing against the rocks below. There’s a memorial and shelter, commemorating the legend behind the name. The daughter of an old Dutch official here threw herself off the cliff when her forbidden lover had to sail back to Europe, never to see her again. The story was dampened slightly when records revealed that the girl in question in fact grew old in the town, married with children. But the name and memorial remains anyway. * Koneswaram Rock Temple The Koneswaram Kovil is found on Swami Rock, just above Fort Frederick.
The unbelievably intricate designs of Hindu temples, with their ornately carved figurines, is an incredible sight and this one is no exception. It’s very colorful and you can walk around the grounds. The temple is built on top of the cliff, tottering right on the edge of the Indian Ocean, and there are fantastic views of the narrow strip of land that is Trinco town. * Fort Frederick The small peninsula jutting out of Trinco town, near the stadium and the main shopping streets, is the Portuguese built Fort Frederick. It’s still a working military base but, unusually, you can walk through it.
Inside the fort grounds are plenty of colonial style British army buildings, cannons and other leftovers from previous inhabitants, and, bizarrely, loads of deer poking their heads out from behind the military offices. There isn’t really a huge amount to see but it’s a pleasant shaded walk, and one you have to make if you want to go to see Koneswaram Rock Temple on the cliff above the fort. Although you can walk around, remember it is still a military base so don’t go too far off the road and, no matter how tempting those deer, it’s not a good idea to take photos unless you ask permission. You can at the temple though. Top of Form * Hindu Temple at Trinco This is a beautiful Hindu temple called Konishvaram right next to Swami Rock (Lovers Leap). There is an enormous Banyan tree in the courtyard. Galle: Galle is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. Galle is the administrative capital of Southern Province, Sri Lanka and the district capital of Galle District. Galle was known as Gimhathiththa (although Ibn Batuta in the 14th century refers to it as Qali[1] before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, when it was the main port on the island.
Galle reached the height of its development in the 18th century, during the Dutch colonial period. The major river in the area is the Gin River (Gin Ganga), which starts from Gongala Kanda and, passing villages such as Neluwa, Nagoda, Baddegama, Thelikada, and Wakwella, reaches the sea at Ginthota. The river is bridged at Wakwella by the Wakwella Bridge. Galle is the best example of a fortified city built by the Portuguese in South and Southeast Asia, showing the interaction between Portuguese architectural styles and native traditions.
The Galle fort is a world heritage site and the largest remaining fortress in Asia built by European occupiers. Other prominent landmarks in Galle include the city’s natural harbor, the National Maritime Museum, St. Mary’s Cathedral founded by Jesuit priests, one of the main Shiva temples on the island, and Amangalla the historic luxury hotel. On 26 December 2004 the city was devastated by the massive Boxing Day Tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake that occurred a thousand miles away, off the coast of Indonesia. Thousands were killed in the city alone.
Galle is home to a cricket ground, the Galle International Stadium, rebuilt after the tsunami. Test matches resumed there on December 18, 2007. Rumassala in Unawatuna is a large mound-like hill, which forms the eastern protective barrier to the Galle harbour. Local tradition associates this hill with some events of the Ramayana. Attractions: * Old Town of Galle and its Fortifications * Galle Fort * Dutch Reformed Church * Sinharaja Forest Reserve * Martin Wickramasinghe Folk Museum Complex * Rumasalla Mountain * Delete All Saints Anglican Church from My Saves * Go to My Saves You added All Saints Anglican Church to your Saves list * View all saved listings * All Saints Anglican Church * Historical Mansion Museum * Meera Mosque * Galle Fort Lighthouse * Jetwing Whale and Dolphin Centre * Maritime Archeology Museum * Clock Tower * Black Fort * Fort Shri Sudarmalaya Buddhist Temple * Dutch Government House Colombo: Colombo is the largest city and the commercial, industrial and cultural capital of Sri Lanka. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte suburb or the parliament capital of Sri Lanka.
Colombo is also the administrative capital of Western Province, Sri Lanka and the district capital of Colombo District. Colombo is often referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is a satellite city of Colombo. Colombo is a busy and vibrant place with a mixture of modern life and colonial buildings and ruinswith a population of about 752,993 in the city limits. It was the political capital of Sri Lanka, before Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte. Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago.
It was made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815, and its status as capital was retained when the nation became independent in 1948. In 1978, when administrative functions were moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. Like many cities, Colombo’s urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority, encompassing other municipal and urban councils. The main city is home to a majority of Sri Lanka’s corporate offices, restaurants and entertainment venues. 4] Famous landmarks in Colombo include the Galle Face Green, the Viharamahadevi Park, Mount Lavinia beach as well as the National Museum. Attractions: * Don Voyage (Pvt) Ltd * Talangama Wetland * R. Premadasa Stadium * Mount Lavinia * Royal Colombo Golf Club * Royal Colombo Golf Club * Wolvendaal Church * Seema Malaka Temple * Colombo National Museum * St. Thomas Chapel India The Indus valley civilization saw its genesis in the holy land now known as India around 2500 BC. The people inhabiting the Indus River valley were thought to be Dravidians, whose descendants later migrated to the south of India.
The deterioration of this civilization that developed a culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade can be attributed to ecological changes. The second millennium BC was witness to the migration of the bucolic Aryan tribes from the North West frontier into the sub continent. These tribes gradually merged with their antecedent cultures to give birth to a new milieu. The Aryan tribes soon started penetrating the east, flourishing along the Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. By 500 BC, the whole of northern India was a civilized land where people had knowledge of iron implements and worked as labor, voluntarily or otherwise.
The early political map of India comprised of copious independent states with fluid boundaries, with increasing population and abundance of wealth fueling disputes over these boundaries. Unified under the famous Gupta Dynasty, the north of India touched the skies as far as administration and the Hindu religion were concerned. Little wonder then, that it is considered to be India’s golden age. By 600 BC, approximately sixteen dynasties ruled the north Indian plains pning the modern day Afghanistan to Bangladesh.
Some of the most powerful of them were the dynasties ruling the kingdoms of Magadha, Kosla, Kuru and Gandhara. Known to be the land of epics and legends, two of the world’s greatest epics find their birth in Indian settings – the Ramayana, depicting the exploits of lord Ram, and the Mahabharta detailing the war between Kauravas and Pandavas, both descendants of King Bharat. Ramayana traces lord Ram’s journey from exile to the rescue of his wife Sita from the demonic clutches of Ravana with the help of his simian companions.
Singing the virtues of Dharma(duty), the Gita, one of the most priced scriptures in Indian Mythology, is the advice given by Shri Krishna to the grief laden Arjun, who is terrified at the thought of killing his kin, on the battle ground. Mahatma Gandhi revived these virtues again, breathing new life in them, during India’s freedom struggle against British Colonialism. An ardent believer in communal harmony, he dreamt of a land where all religions would be the threads to form a rich social fabric. Cochin:
Kochi formerly Cochin, is a major port city on the west coast of India by the Arabian Sea and is part of the district of Ernakulam of the state of Kerala. Kochi is often called by the name Ernakulam, which refers to the eastern part of the mainland Kochi. The civic body that governs the city is the Corporation of Cochin, which was constituted in the year 1967, and the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) and the Goshree Islands Development Authority (GIDA). The city of Kochi (pop. 01,574) is the most densely populated city in the state and is part of an extended metropolitan region (pop. 2. 1 million), which is the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. Kochi city is also a part of Greater Cochin region and is classified as a B-1 grade city[8] by the Government of India, making it the highest graded city in the state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala. Kochi has been ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveler magazine.
Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities found to be among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a study done by McKinsey Global Institute. The city lies about 220 kilometers (137 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram, and about 180 kilometers (112 mi) south of Kozhikode. Heralded as the Queen of Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the Arabian Sea coast from the 14th century. Occupied by the Portuguese Empire in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India.
It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530, when Goa was chosen instead. The city was later occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747. Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the Kochi Refineries, and the Kochi Marina.
Kochi is also home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, major chemical industries like the FACT, TCC, IREL, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical industries like TELK and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone and Infopark. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Attractions: * Backwaters of Kochi are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India.
In Cochin, the stretch from Kochi Azhi to Munambam Azhi, the serene backwaters are popularly known as Veeranpuzha. It is the northern extension of Vembanad Lake. Vembanad Lake (Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is India’s longest lake,[5] and is the largest lake in Kerala. It is also one of the largest lakes in India. * Marine Drive is a picturesque promenade in Kochi. It is built facing the backwaters, and is a popular hangout for the local populace. Marine Drive is also an economically thriving part of the city of Kochi. With several shopping malls it is as an important centre of shopping activity in Kochi.
The walkway has two contemporarily constructed bridges, the Rainbow bridge and the Chinese Fishing Net Bridge. The view of the setting and rising sun over the sea mouth, and the gentle breeze from the Vembanad Lake has made Marine Drive an important tourist destination in Kochi. Hundreds of people (both natives, and tourists) throng the walkway during the evenings. * Fort Kochi : situated on the Fort Kochi/Mattancherry peninsula, is the historical part of the city and home to many tourist attractions, such as the cantilevered Chinese fishing nets, the Mattancherry Palace and the Santa Cruz Basilica. Hill Palace : is the largest archaeological museum in Kerala, near Tripunithura. [6] It was the administrative office of Kochi Rajas. Built in 1865, the Palace complex consists of 49 buildings in the traditional architectural style, spreading across in 54 acres (220,000 m2). The complex has an archaeological Museum, a Heritage Museum, a Deer Park, a prehistoric park and a children’s park. [7] * Mattancherry Palace, also known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, features Kerala murals depicting Hindu temple art, portraits and exhibits of the Rajas of Kochi.
Mattancherry Palace with its medieval charm is situated at Palace Road, Mattancherry, Kochi. It was built by the Portuguese and presented to Veera Kerala Varma (1537–65), Raja of Kochi, in 1555 AD. The palace is a quadrangular structure built in Nalukettu style, the traditional Kerala style of architecture, with a courtyard in the middle. In the courtyard there stands a small temple dedicated to ‘Pazhayannur Bhagavati’, the protective goddess of the Kochi royal family. There are two more temples on either side of the Palace, one dedicated to Lord Krishna and the other to Lord Siva.
Certain elements of architecture, as for example the nature of its arches and the proportion of its chambers are indicative of European influence in basic Naluketttu style. * Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (locally known as Kaloor International Stadium) is an international stadium in Kochi, Kerala, India. With a capacity to hold 60,000 spectators, the stadium was built in 1996. Originally constructed as a football stadium, it has played host to a number of international cricket and football matches. The extensive grounds of the stadium serve as venue for important exhibitions, cinema events and political rallies in the city.
The stadium is equipped with floodlights for night play. The architecture of the stadium is unique compared to other stadia in India. * Jewish Synagogue : or the Paradesi Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations,[8] located in Kochi in South India. It was built in 1568 by the Malabar Yehudan people or Cochin Jewish community in the Kingdom of Cochin. It is also referred to as the Cochin Jewish Synagogue or the Mattancherry Synagogue. The synagogue is located in the quarter of Old Cochin known as Jew Town,[8] and is the only one of the seven synagogues in the area still in use. The complex has four buildings.
It was built adjacent to the Mattancherry Palace temple on the land gifted to the Malabari Yehuden community by the Raja of Kochi, RamaVarma. The Mattancherry Palace temple and the Mattancherry synagogue share a common wall. * Santa Cruz Cathedral Basilica : a church built originally by the Portuguese and

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