Training and development activities begin when a new employee enters the organization usually in the form of employee orientation and skills training. Employee orientation is the process by which new employees learn important organizational values and norms, establish working relationships, and learn how to function within their Jobs. The HARD staff and hiring supervisor generally share the responsibility for designing the orientation process, conducting general orientation sessions, and beginning the initial skills training.
Skills and technical training programs then narrow in scope to teach the new employee a particular skill or area of knowledge. Once new employees have become proficient in their Jobs, HARD activities should focus more on developmental activities specifically, coaching and counseling. In the coaching process, individuals are encouraged to accept responsibility for their actions, to address any work-related problems, and to achieve and to sustain superior performance.
Coaching involves treating employees as partners in achieving both personal and organizational goals. Counseling techniques are used to help employees deal with personal problems that may address such issues as substance abuse, stress management smoking cessation, r fitness, nutrition, and weight control. HARD professionals are also responsible for coordinating management training and development programs to ensure that managers and supervisors have the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective in their positions.
These programs include supervisory training, Job rotation, one-day seminars, or college and university courses. 1. 1. 2 Organization Development (DO) the well-being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. DO emphasizes both macro and micro organizational changes: macro changes are intended to ultimately improve the effectiveness of the organization, whereas micro changes are directed at individuals, small groups and teams. The role of the HARD professional involved in an DO intervention is to function as a change agent.
Facilitating change often requires consulting with and advising line managers on strategies that can be used to effect the desired change. The HARD professional may also become directly involved in carrying out the intervention strategy, such as facilitating a meeting of the employees responsible for planning and implementing the actual change process. 1. 1. 3 Career development Career development is an ongoing process by which individuals’ progress through a rise of stages, each of which is characterizes by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks.
Career development involves two distinct processes: career planning and career management. Career planning involves activities performed by an individual, often with the assistance of counselors and others, to assess his or her skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan. Career management involves taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan, and generally focuses more on what the organization can do to foster employee career development. There is a throng relationship between career development and T activities. 1. Other HARD Roles and outputs for HARD Professionals HARD professionals perform nine distinct roles, which are described below: The HER strategic adviser consults strategic decision makers on HARD issues that directly affect the articulation of organization strategies and performance goals. The HER systems designer and developer assist HER management in the design and development of HER systems that affect organization performance. The organization change agent advises management in the design and implementation of change strategies used in ransoming organizations.
The organization design consultant advises management on work systems design and the efficient use of human resources. The learning program specialist (or instructional designer) identifies needs of the learner, develops and designs appropriate learning programs, and prepares materials and other learning aids. The instructor/facilitator presents materials and leads and facilitates structured learning experiences. The individual development and career counselor assists individual employees in assessing their competencies and goals in order to develop.
The performance consultant (or coach) advises line management on appropriate interventions designed to improve individual and group performance. The researcher assesses HARD practices and programs using appropriate statistical procedures to determine their overall effectiveness and communicates the results to the organization. Strategic management involves a set of managerial decisions and actions that are intended to provide a competitively superior fit with the external environment and enhance the long-run performance of the organization.
It involves several distinct processes, including strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and control. In particular, HARD executives and professionals should demonstrate the strategic capability of HARD in three primary ways: 1 . First, HARD executives should contribute information, ideas, and recommendations during strategy formulation and ensure that the organization’s HARD strategy is consistent with the overall strategy. 2.
Second, HARD professionals should provide education and training programs that support effective strategic management. Training in strategic management concepts and methods can help line managers to develop a global perspective that is essential for managing in today’s highly competitive environment. Finally, HARD professionals must ensure that all training efforts are clearly linked to the goals and strategies of the organization. 1. 4 Supervisor’s Role in HARD Supervisors play a critical role in implementing many HARD programs and processes.
Many organizations rely on line supervisors to implement HARD programs and processes such as orientation, training, coaching, and career development. The HARD executive/manager has primary responsibility for all HARD activities. One of the important tasks of the HARD executive is to promote the value of HARD as a means of insuring that organizational members have the competencies to meet current and future Job demands. 1. 5 HARD process HARD programs and interventions can be used to address a wide range of issues and problems in an organization.
They are used to orient and socialize new employees into the organization, provide skills and knowledge, and help individuals and groups become more effective. To ensure that these goals are achieved, care must be given when designing and delivering HARD programs. Designing HARD intervention involves a process, which includes a four-step sequence: needs assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation. Needs Assessment phase HARD interventions are used to address some need or gap within the organization.
A need can either be a current deficiency, such as poor employee performance, or a new challenge that demands a change in the way the organization operates. Employee performance. This information can be used to: Establish priorities for expending HARD efforts Define specific training and HARD objectives Establish evaluation criteria. Design phase The second phase of training and HARD process involves designing the HARD program or intervention. The following activities are typically carried out during this phase:
Selecting the specific objectives of the program Developing an appropriate lesson plan for the program Developing or acquiring the appropriate materials for the trainees to use Determining who will deliver the program Selecting the most appropriate method or methods to conduct the program Scheduling the program The design phase also involves selecting and developing the content of the program. This means choosing the most appropriate setting for the program (e. G. On the Job, in a classroom), and the materials to be used in delivering the program (workbooks). Implementation phase
The goal of the assessment and design phases is to implement effective HARD programs or interventions. This means that the program or intervention must be delivered or implemented, using the most appropriate means or methods. Evaluation phase Program evaluation is the final phase in the training and HARD process. This is where the effectiveness of the HARD intervention is measured. Careful evaluation provides information on participants’ reaction to the program, how much they learned, whether they use what they learned back on the Job, and whether the program improved the organization’s effectiveness.
This information allows managers to make better decisions about various aspects of the HARD effort, such as: Continuing to use a particular technique or vendor in future programs Offering a particular program in the future Budgeting and resource allocation Using some other HER or managerial approach to solve the problem It is important that HARD professionals provide evidence that HARD programs improve individual and organizational effectiveness. Armed with this information, HARD managers from other areas of the organization when discussing the effectiveness of their actions and competing for resources. Unit questions:
Management development is one of the most common HARD activities. Although management development has been defined in many ways, the following definition best captures the essence of management development as it can and should be practiced in organizations: “an organization’s conscious effort to provide its managers (and potential managers) with opportunities to learn, grow, and change, in hopes of producing over the long term a cadre of managers with the skills necessary to function effectively in that organization”. This Unit will address Management, Organizational as well as Career development in detail.