For this milestone, submit a draft of your final PowerPoint presentation based on the information that you identified in Milestones One and Two to the discussion to be reviewed by your fellow classmates.
– Penis is located in the pubic region superior to the scrotum and inferior to the umbilicus along the body’s midline.
– Scrotum The scrotum is a unique anatomical feature of humans and certain other species of land-dwelling mammals. It is continuous with the skin of the lower abdomen and is located directly behind the penis and in front of the anus.
– Testicle is contained within the scrotal sac, which is located directly behind the penis and in front of the anus.
– Vas Deferens passes through the inguinal canal en route to the abdominal cavity eventually, into the urethra.
– Ejaculatory ducts are present at the interface of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle. The ejaculatory duct is present within the prostate and it ends at the prostate urethra.
– Prostate glands is located inferiorly to the bladder
– Epididymis head lies on the superior surface of the testes, while the body and tail and are on the posterior surface of the testis.
– Urethra- a duct that transmits urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body during urination. The urethra is held closed by the urethral sphincter, a muscular structure that helps keep urine in the bladder until voiding can occur.
– Bulbourethral glands are located posterior and lateral to the membranous portion of the urethra at the base of the penis, between the two layers of the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, in the deep perineal pouch
– Seminal Vesicles are located on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder lateral to the ampulla of theductus deferens
– Penis Structures of the penis
The outer foreskin layer is a continuation of the skin of the shaft of the penis.
The inner foreskin layer is not just “skin,” but mucocutaneous tissue of a unique type found nowhere else on the body.
The ridged band is the interface (join) between the outer and inner foreskin layers. When the penis is not erect, it tightens to narrow the foreskin opening. During erection, the ridged band forms ridges that go all the way around, about halfway down the shaft.
The reddish or purplish glans or glans penis (head of the penis) is smooth, shiny, moist and extremely sensitive.
The frenulum is a connecting membrane on the underside of the penis, similar to that beneath the tongue.
– Scrotum in the male reproductive system, a thin external sac of skin that is divided into two compartments; each compartment contains one of the two testes, the glands that produce sperm, and one of the epididymides, where the sperm is stored. … It contains the testes and lowest parts of the spermatic cord
-Testicles are a part of a man’s reproductive system. A man has 2 testicles. Each testicle is egg-shaped and about 5 cm long. The testicles are covered by a sac of skin called the scrotum
-Vas Deferens a fibromuscular tube that is continuation of the epididymis and is an excretory duct of the testis.
-Ejaculatory duct either of two hollow tubes, each formed by union of the ampulla of a ductus deferensand the excretory duct of a seminal vesicle.
-Epididymis a tightly coiled mass of thin tubes
-Prostate gland is about the size of a walnut. This is a tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. The prostate is partly muscular and partly glandular
-Urethra is a single structure, it is composed of a heterogeneous series of segments: prostatic, membranous, and spongy.
-Bulbourethral the glands, which measure only about 1 cm (0.4 inch) in diameter, have ducts that empty into the
urethra, the tube through which both urine and semen pass. They are composed of a network of small tubes, or tubules, and saclike structures; between the tubules are fibers of muscle and elastic tissue that give the glands structural support.
-Seminal vesicles each vesicle consists of a single tube folded and coiled on itself, with occasional diverticula in its wall. Each seminal vesicle consists of a single, coiled, blind-ending tube giving off several irregular pouches. It is normally around 3 to 5 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. However, when uncoiled they are roughly 10 cm in length.
– Scrotum is two oval-shaped glands responsible for producing and storing sperm.
– The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
– Epididymis stores sperms for maturation.
– Testicles The main function of the testes is producing and storing sperm. They’re also crucial for creating testosterone and other male hormones called androgens.
– Ejaculatory duct function to mix the sperm stored in the ampulla with fluids secreted by the seminal vesicles and to transport these substances to the prostate.
– Prostate glands main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of the components of semen.
– Bulbourethral – The primary function of bulbourethral glands is production of pre-ejaculate. It is a clear, viscous secretion that is produced during sexual arousal. Its function is to help lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass and neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra.
Seminal Vesicles secrete a significant proportion of the fluid that ultimately becomes semen.
– Epididymis lined with pseudostratified columnar epitheliun with stereocilia
– Bulbourethral is enclosed by transverse fibers of the sphincter urethrae membranaceae muscle.
– The testes are surrounded by several layers of tissue. They are the:
– Vas Deferens The mucosa of the vas deferens forms low longitudinal folds. It is lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Similar to the epididymis, cells have long stereocilia.
– Prostate glands the tubuloalveolar glands have pseudostratified columnar epithelium of varying height. Basal cells are found between the columnar cells for regeneration of the epithelium. Each gland is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle (fibromuscular stroma).
– Bulbourethral a thin connective tissue membrane separates the alveoli of the glands and supports their blood vessels. The tubules and alveoli of the body are lined by tall columnar epithelium with small, flattened nuclei; those in the tail by low columnar epithelium with round basal nuclei.
– Seminal vesicles histologically, the seminal vesicles are composed of 3 layers. These include an inner mucosal layer, consisting of pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells and a lamina propria; a muscular layer, with an inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle arrangement; and finally, an outer adventitial layer composed of loose areolar tissue.
Males produce the smallest human cell — the sperm, which is only 5 micrometers by 3 micrometers in size, not including the sperm’s “tail.”
Examples of cancers of the reproductive system include:
Prostate cancer – Cancer of the prostate gland
Breast cancer – Cancer of the mammary gland.
Ovarian cancer – Cancer of the ovary.
Penile cancer – Cancer of the penis.
Uterine cancer – Cancer of the uterus.
Testicular cancer – Cancer of the testicle.
Cervical Cancer – Cancer of the cervix.
The human body has eleven organ systems. The organ systems are; integumentary system, endocrine system, excretory system, respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, muscular system, reproductive system, lymphatic system, and the skeletal system. Each organ system has its specific functions but all the organ systems work interdependently to achieve homeostasis in the body. One example of a primary system is the respiratory system and its corresponding secondary system is the circulatory system.
Respiratory system: The respiratory system consists of a series of organs that takes in oxygen in the body and expels carbon IV oxide. The respiratory system consists of three main parts; the lungs, the airway, and the respiratory muscles (Kleinstreuer & Zhang 2010). The airway consists of the larynx, pharynx, bronchioles, bronchi, nose, and trachea. The respiratory muscles consists the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. The airway is the passage of oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. The intercostals muscle pushes air in and out of the lungs.
Circulatory system (Cardiovascular system):The circulatory system circulates respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), metabolic wastes, and nutrients through the body. The heart is the center of the circulatory system. Other parts of the circulatory systems are the veins, capillaries, arterioles, arteries, blood, and the lungs. The circulatory system composes the pulmonary circulation and the systematic circulation. The pulmonary circulation is the process where blood flows from the heart to the lungs and vice versa. Systematic circulation is the process where the blood flows from the heart, to all other organs, and back to the heart (Noordergraaf 2012).
The homeostatic interrelationship between the two organ systems
The respiratory and the excretory systems work co-dependently to aid in circulating blood and oxygen through all the body parts of a human being.
The respiratory system facilitates gaseous exchange in the human body. The circulatory system pumps the blood through the body. The process of gaseous exchange ensures that the blood is fresh throughout.
The lungs connects the circulatory system and the circulatory system. The lungs assist in the pulmonary circulation system. The process involves the flow of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart and flow of deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
The respiratory system controls air intake into the body and removal of carbon dioxide from the body thus maintaining homeostasis (Ionescu 2013). The circulatory system on the other hand maintains homeostasis by maintaining gaseous exchange within the individual cells.
The respiratory system and the circulatory system work hand in hand to ensure that all the body tissues have enough oxygen supply. In the respiratory process, the airway takes in air to the lungs. The lungs take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. The lungs oxygenate the blood flowing from the heart to it. In the blood circulatory process, the deoxygenated blood flows from the body tissues, to the heart, and then to the lungs. The lungs fill the blood with oxygen and the blood is pumped back to the heart which pumps it to all other body parts. Thus, all body parts have adequate supply of oxygen through the two processes.
The respiratory and the circulatory systems work together to ensure that the excretion of carbon iv oxide from the body is successful. After the oxygenated blood flows into the body tissues, the tissues take in the oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. The blood with carbon dioxide is referred to as the deoxygenated blood. The deoxygenated blood flows from the body tissues to the heart. The heart pumps the blood to the lungs where the lungs removes the carbon dioxide from the blood and expels it out to the environment through the nose. Thus, the circulatory process assists the respiratory system in excretion of carbon dioxide.
The circulatory process circulates nutrients to all the body parts including the parts of the respiratory systems. This supply of nutrients to the respiratory organs nourishes them to work well.
One disease that affects the respiratory system
One of the respiratory diseases is the tuberculosis (TB).
TB is a major respiratory illness that attacks the lungs and other respiratory organs. The disease can be easily spread through the air when an infected person laughs, talks, or coughs. There are two forms of TB;
Latent TB:The bacteria causing TB is inactive and signs and symptoms are not yet noticeable. The bacteria are not easily transmitted. The disease is very easy to cure at this stage.
Active TB: The bacteria causing the disease is now active. Signs and symptoms are visible and the bacteria is contagious. The disease at this stage is acute and the patient is likely to die if he/she does not receive adequate medical attention.
A bacterium called Mycobacterium TB (tubercle bacillus) is the causative agent of TB (Johnkennedy Augustin& Ikechukwu 2012).
The vulnerable people
Living in overcrowded places.
People with weak immune systems like people infected with HIV virus.
People who undergo treatments like chemotherapy because it weakens their immune systems.
People who live an unhealthy lifestyle like the drunkards, and those who have very poor diet.
The old and the very young children are likely to suffer from TB because they have weaker immune systems.
Signs and symptoms
Lack of appetite
Loss of weight
Vomiting and nausea
Severe coughing (chronic)
Prevention and cure
A patient suffering from TB should take antibiotics administered by a specialized doctor for a prolonged period (Tulu & Kahissay 2014).
Administer vaccines to people who are not yet infected.
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