This subdivision will research the background of the survey, the job treatment, research inquiries, boundary lines and the clip program for research work.
In today ‘s information age, the usage of computing machines in any organisation is cardinal. We use computing machine in each and every facet of our lives. Anybody who wants to win in today ‘s universe can non afford to disregard computing machines and information engineering. Any industrial, concern or administrative organisation comprises of different constituents such as employees, concern procedures and the machinery equipment etc. It is indispensable to pull off and use these constituents in order to accomplish the coveted ends. The direction and use of these constituents is possible merely if the managerial governments are provided with the full information about the handinesss and capablenesss of all constituents. For intent to accomplish, Information System ( IS ) was introduced which was an effort to garner the needed information and shop it for efficient running of the organisation in order to accomplish its ends. Subsequently on the demand arose to concentrate on development of some kind of information systems which would be integrated, transverse functional and could work expeditiously across organisation.
M. Lynne Markus & A ; Cornelis Tanis ( 200 ) explained how the demand for such incorporate systems emerged. They highlighted that “the 1970s vision of a individual integrated information system for the endeavor remained a mirage for the bulk of computer-using organizations” . Software entrepreneurs at that clip started developing integrated package bundles in which multiple functional applications can portion a individual common database. They succeeded in their mission and eventually they came up with such systems/packages known as Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) .
Harmonizing to Kumer et Al. ( 2008 ) , ERP systems initiated in fabrication industries and it was the first coevals of ERP system. He farther explained that the development of first coevals of ERP system was an wrong-side-out procedure, expanded and developed from standard stock list control ( IC ) bundles, to stuff demands planning ( MRP ) , material resources planning ( MRP II ) ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . Then advanced it to a package bundle that aims to back up the full organisation ( Second coevals ERP systems ) and this advanced package bundle is so described as the following coevals ERP system branded as ERP II system ( Kumar and V. Hillegersberg ) .
In the average clip the unfastened beginning ERP besides came into the market. Harmonizing to Hars and Qu ( Hars, A. and Qu, S. , 2002 ) , Open beginning package derived back in 1950s and sixtiess. When package was sold, macros and public-service corporations were free. “However, the existent take-off of unfastened beginning package was likely when Richard Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation ( FSF ) that provided the conceptual foundation for unfastened beginning software” ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . Open beginning is a particular sort of package development, design and distribution method. It allows entree to beginning codification. It became popular with the rise of cyberspace. Anyone can utilize, modify and redistribute the unfastened beginning package. The entree to the beginning codification provides more freedom to user to retrace or modify the codification harmonizing to their ain demands so that the package best fits their demands. Usually communities of users and developers holding coaction through cyberspace communicate, design and develop unfastened beginning package. Subscribers from different parts of the universe may lend. The communities have capablenesss to alter undertaking beginning codification ; they have regular codification part among themselves. The community reviews the part of the users and developers and accepts that one that fulfills the undertaking criterions.
Harmonizing to Bruce et Al. ( 2006 ) , unfastened beginning is mature and has strength in many countries like- OS, application waiters and security tools ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . With the transition of clip different types of unfastened beginning package ‘s came into the market, so as the Open Source ERP besides emerged. Bruce et Al. ( 2006 ) referred it as 3rd moving ridge of Open Source package acceptance. They besides mentioned that concern applications countries like- CRM, ERP, content direction and concern intelligence OS is strong in. The unfastened beginning ERP is a system for advanced concerns taking for planetary coaction. Some of the well known unfastened beginning ERP applications suppliers are Compiere, Opentaps, ERP5, OpenPro etc.
1.2 Problem Discussion
Most of the organisations are good familiar with ERP systems and the ERP market is rather appealing for them. The ERP systems have quickly become the de facto industry criterion for replacing of bequest systems ( A. N. Parr and Dr. G. Shanks, 2000 ) . The planetary ERP applications market is turning at a fast rate and continues to turn due to an addition demand for incorporate solutions. The ERP sellers are supplying organisations with different applications for their demands. A. N. Parr and Dr. G. Shanks ( 2000 ) explained it that the sellers of these to the full integrated package ( ERP systems ) offer package which is capable of treating all commercial maps of companies, even if they are diverse or geographically disparate.
Despite the significance of ERP systems the world is that ERP is a complex systems, where the complexness comes from the fact that ERP systems are made-up to incorporate the organisation, both inter-organizational every bit good as intra-organizational, and its concern procedures in one ensemble bundle ( Koch, C. , 2001 ) . Nowadays bulk of the ERP sellers are altering their scheme and kept progressively developing it to do their place strong amongst the SMEs along with the big companies ( Amit Bajaj, 2008 ) .
Large organisations find it easy to implement ERP systems due to the handiness of sufficient resources. Merely big houses have been able to bask the benefits of ERP systems ( Sandra J. Cereola, 2000 ) .On the other manus for the little and average sized companies it is difficult to deploy such ERP systems in their houses. Most SMEs operate in a extremely dynamic universe, where both internal and external demands may alter ( Branzei and Vertinsky, 2004 ) . Implementing such systems can be dearly-won for SMEs because they may necessitate advisers later on which will breed excess cost for them.
SMEs play really of import function in the economic system and it is a important market to concentrate. That is why ERP sellers want to capture little and average sized concern with a figure of offerings which can assist SMEs to take full advantage of ERP without passing much clip, attempts and work force ( Amit Bajaj, 2008 ) . But the demands of the SMEs may be indistinguishable from each other. And they ne’er be bothered about highly decisive functionality, execution and bringing theoretical accounts that can maintain primary and returning costs low ( Michael Dominy, 2004 ) . With the changed scheme to make a centre of attending of the SMEs the sellers came up with new thoughts like- Application Service Providers ( ASP ) , Outsource ERP systems and Pre-configured ERP Applications for SMEs ( Amit Bajaj, 2008 ) . In malice of these attempts from ERP sellers, SMEs are still non profoundly interested to Proprietary ERP.
B. Johansson and F. Sudzina ( 2009 ) described, “There is no uncertainty that there is a great involvement in unfastened beginning. ” The increasing involvement in this field can be understood from the OS ERP Project registered in the SourceForge.net. “SourceForge.net provides free hosting to Open Source package development undertakings with a centralised resource for pull offing undertakings, issues, communications, and code” ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . They besides mentioned that the package showed to be highest in the list of download is OpenBravo, which clearly focused merely on the SMEs as they described.
Serrano and Sarreiegi ( 2006 ) argued that 12 SMEs successfully implemented OS ERP and they did it after measuring proprietary ERPs but the interesting fact is that the SMEs were non interested in unfastened beginning licence. So it can be said that it was non the fact that openness was the ground that made the SMEs install specific ERP systems ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . This can besides be understood from the client ‘s successful execution instances of Compiere, one of the taking participants in the OS ERP market. Two of their clients replaced their bequest systems with Compiere. So free licensing is non the lone fact.
From the treatment so far it is clear that the usage and growing of Open Source Software in Enterprise Computing sphere yet to be mentionable, although the significance of Open Source Software at nowadays is priceless. Even in academic sector at that place have non been so much research work done about different issues of Free/Open Source ERP. Throughout literature reappraisal of Enterprise Resources Planning we found so much stuff on the proprietary ERP. But when we come in to OS ERP we found small work has been done so far ; And some of import countries inside it are still ignored. The interesting thing was that in about all of these instances the unfastened beginning ERP are used by SMEs merely. Few research work raised the issues of cost and therefore proposed that cost is ground for the SMEs to follow it but nil or really less mentioned about why merely SMEs are implementing OS-ERP. What other factors or grounds are at that place that encourages the SMEs to travel towards OS-ERP.
1.3 Research Questions
Writing research paper usually initiates with the research inquiry ( s ) . The research inquiry ( s ) gives us a clear way for probe throughout our research. The likely research inquiries that will be investigated in item in our research are as follows.
What motivates SMEs to follow Open Source ERP? What motivates SMEs to follow Open Source ERP?
The intent of this survey is to look upon at the addition impetus of utilizing OS ERP by SMEs and research cognition about assorted principles that motivates Small and Medium Sized ( SMEs ) companies in following OS ERP. This paper is an effort to supply information to those who are interested in OS ERP construct and assorted issues related to it ; and to those companies who have desire to utilize OSS ERP and seeks information about it. The focal point will be to indentify those principles that motivates and influcence SMEs to implement OS ERP even though the proprietary ERP sellers have different schemes to pull SMEs. At first they will be indentified and analyzed thenceforth.
1.5 Boundary lines
The survey is based on those companies which fall under the definition of SMEs, and to the companies that are accessible for survey. The survey is besides limited to experiences or sentiments of the users and sentiments of the sellers are non mentioned. This signifies that Open beginning ERP user ‘s position will be mentioned and that of seller ‘s will be excluded.
2 Frame of Mention:
This chapter focuses on assorted definitions and constructs related to Enterprise resource be aftering systems. Here we will besides discourse about OS ERP and of its outgrowth. The different definitions, constructs and the related work in the field of OS ERP will besides be discussed here to assist us in showing the model for our survey.
2.1 Information Systems:
The information systems include hardware, package, informations, procedure and people ; and its function is to treat informations into information utilizing information engineering, concern procedures, and people resources ( Motiwalla 2009, p:4 ) . Further the UK Academy of Information Systems ( UKAIS ) defines Information systems as the agencies by which people and organisations, using engineering, gather, procedure, shop, usage and disseminate information ( J. Ward & A ; J. Peppard ; 2002, P: 20 ) .
2.2 Incorporate information systems:
Integrated information systems refers to the interaction of two or more than two information systems with one another. It is an enlargement of a basic information system achieved through system design of an improved or broader capableness by functionally or technically associating two or more information systems, or by integrating a part of the functional or proficient elements of one information system into another.
Integrated Information Systems is the constellation that helps to organize the mechanised operations in an organisation. This tool can be referred as one measure in front of direction information systems. They help in providing the needed information that one can make up one’s mind upon in an organisation. This is regarded as one of the critical map in the concern organisation. Information systems need to hold integrated informations, applications, and resources from across the organisation. To carry through this, the incorporate information systems are needed today to concentrate on clients, to treat efficiency, and to assist construct squads that bring employees together from different functional countries ( Motiwalla 2009 ; P:07 ) .
2.3 Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) :
An Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) system is an integrated package system that manages the mainstream operations of an organisation. ERP is frequently defined as the standardised packaged package designed at taking integrating the full value concatenation in the organisation, as described by lengnick-Hall et Al. ( 2004 ) and Rolland et al. ( 2000 ) . Quoting Alshawi et Al, 2004 as they stated “What is different about ERP systems is that they integrate across maps to make a individual, incorporate system, instead than a group of separate, insular applications” And Davenport ( 1998 ) defined it as “ERP ( Enterprise Resource Planning Systems ) comprises of a commercial package bundle that promises the seamless integrating of all the information fluxing through the company fiscal, accounting, human resources, supply concatenation and client information”
Kumar and Hillsgersberg ( 2000 ) have a similar definition to Davenport ‘s: “ERP systems are configurable information systems packages that integrate information and in-formation-based procedures within and across functional countries in an organization” . Tadjer ( 1998 ) has a more proficient definition than Davenport ( 1998 ) and Kumar and Hillsgersberg ( 2000 ) , the definition reads: “One database, one application and a incorporate interface across the full enterprise” . ERP systems are the first coevals of endeavor systems whose end was to incorporate informations across and be comprehensive in back uping all the major maps of the organisation. They are comprehensive package applications that support critical organisational maps. These integrated information systems support enterprise maps like accounting, fiscal, selling, and production demands of organisations. This allows for existent clip informations flows between the functional applications ( Motiwalla 2009 ; p:7,8 ) .
Wier et Al. ( 2007 ) argue that purpose of ERP systems is to incorporate concern procedures and ICT into a consonant aggregation of processs, applications and prosodies which can work over the boundaries of houses. ERP systems are all inclusive applications that can execute specific critical organisational maps. It makes the information flow smooth and dynamic. The intent is to do the information flow blink of an eye and extinguish the information redundancy, and to add more flexibleness. It allows different units of the organisations to come under one substructure. The information integrating allowed by the ERP empowers the reusing of the informations across all the systems.
Motiwalla ( 2009 ; p:9 ) highlighted this by saying that the end of ERP is to incorporate sections and maps across an organisation onto a individual substructure that serves the demands of each section. They farther explained that an ERP system combines all units of an organisation together into a individual, incorporate package environment that works on a individual database, thereby leting assorted sections to portion information and communicate with each other more easy.
2.4 Small and Medium Sized Enterprises ( SMEs ) :
Specific definition of the SMEs are tough to happen as it varies and depends on standards such as figure on employees and turnover ( Burgess, 2002 ) . As Thomas Deelmann and Peter Loos ( 2002 ) mentioned, “The acronym SME ( Small and Medium-sized Enterprise ) tries to group a kind of companies, which are little and average sized in a particular manner. Unfortunately this categorization is non good defined.”
“In 1971 Bolton Report ( Dawes & A ; Haydock in Frank, 1999 ) defined SMEs on the footing of figure of employees, turnover and an economic definition that was based on the indispensable features of the little firms” ( Kishore, K. , Bandi & A ; Kamlesh Bhatt, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to official EU definition of the SMEs is based on the combination of the undermentioned standards: figure of employees, independency, turnover and balanced-sheet sum. As mentioned in the imperativeness releases on 08-02-1996, in order to be considered as an SME an endeavor must hold less than 250 employees and one-year turnover non transcending than 40 million euro. A farther basic standard added in the definition is “independence” , means the house can non be owned by the one or jointly by several big endeavor more than 25 % .The distinction of SMEs can be understood clearly from the following tabular array.
Table 2.1EU official definition of SME
Maximal figure of employees
Maximal one-year turnover
Maximal one-year balance sheet entire
Maximal % can be owned by the one or jointly by severel big endeavor.
— — — — — — — — — –
— — — — — — — — –
7 million Euros
5 million Euros
40 million Euros
27 million Euros
Harmonizing to the Swedish official Statisticss from Statisticss Sweden ( StatistikaCentralbyran, SCB ) , a company is typically categorized as SME when it has maximal 199 employees ( Jennie Lindmark & A ; Lena Zetterwall, 1998 ) .
Small and Medium Sized company has important impact on economic system. 20 % of entire export come from the SMEs in Sweden Having less than 200 employees ( Jennie, L. & A ; L. Zetterwall,1998 cited in Kishore, K. , Bandi & A ; Kamlesh Bhatt, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Sandra J. Cereola ( 2000 ) , “SMEs play an tremendous function in most economic systems. Harmonizing to the US Census Bureau, in 2005 SMEs represented about 80 six per centum of the entire constitutions ( 90 nine per centum of the entire houses ) and accounted for about 50 per centum of the entire employment ( U.S. Census Bureau 2005 ) ”
2.5 Open Source Software
Nowadays the usage of unfastened beginning package is obvious in about every field. Assorted writers tried to explicate the construct of OSS. OSS/FS plans are plans whose licences give users the freedom to run the plan for any intent, to analyze and modify the plan, and to redistribute transcripts of either the original or modified plan ( David A. Wheeler, 2007 ) .
The Open Source Initiative ( OSI ) introduces the definition of unfastened beginning package as such ; Open beginning mean entree to the beginning codification but that it should follow the undermentioned features as good.
– agencies at that place should non be any limitations on a party from selling or administering any constituent of a package and shall non necessitate any fee for sale. – means there should non be any limitations on a party from selling or administering any constituent of a package and shall non necessitate any fee for sale.
Beginning Code –
the plan must include beginning codification and it must be in a clear signifier so that a coder could modify the plan. the plan must include beginning codification and it must be in a clear signifier so that a coder could modify the plan.
– Furthermore the licence must let alterations, other derived plants and distribution of such work under the original licence footings. – Furthermore the licence must let alterations, other derived plants and distribution of such work under the original licence footings.
Integrity of The Author ‘s Source Code –
The licence may curtail beginning codification that alterations are distributed as ‘patch files ‘ . In add-on the licence should incorporate that derived plants hold a different name or version figure from the original package. The licence may curtail beginning codification that alterations are distributed as ‘patch files ‘ . In add-on the licence should incorporate that derived plants hold a different name or version figure from the original package.
No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups –
agencies that the licence must non know apart against any individual or group of individuals. means that the licence must non know apart against any individual or group of individuals.
No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor –
It should non curtail the plan for utilizing by person in a concern or for familial research. It should non curtail the plan for utilizing by person in a concern or for familial research.
Distribution of License –
The rights of a plan must use to all those to whom such plan is redistributed. The rights of a plan must use to all those to whom such plan is redistributed.
License Must Not Be Specific to a Product –
License should hold the same rights to all parties to whom the plan is redistributed and that that are granted in concurrence with the original package distribution. License should hold the same rights to all parties to whom the plan is redistributed and that that are granted in concurrence with the original package distribution.
License Must Not Restrict Other Software –
at that place should non be any limitations on other package that is distributed along with the accredited package in a licence. there should non be any limitations on other package that is distributed along with the accredited package in a licence.
License Must Be Technology Neutral-
the licence should non incorporate any requirement on any single engineering or manner of interface. the licence should non incorporate any requirement on any single engineering or manner of interface.
Those licences that fulfill the above conditions can obtain certifications from OSI and after being certified by OSI may utilize their enfranchisement grade.
Peoples frequently misinterpret the term unfastened beginning which they believe, is ever refer to freely available package and they can modify or administer it without any restriction or so ; while the existent scenario is a bit different. There are some types of unfastened beginning package and different issues are related with them. Many writers tried to concentrate on the likely types of unfastened beginning package and the most outstanding among them is Dirk Riehle. Riehle. D ( 2007 ) pointed out this by explicating that there are two different types of unfastened beginning package, one is community unfastened beginning and other is commercial unfastened beginning. Harmonizing to Riehle, the Community unfastened beginning is package developed by a community. On the other manus the commercial unfastened beginning is package that a for net income entity owns and develops. These types differ in the context that in each of them, who decides on the future way of a package. He farther discussed that in the instance of community unfastened beginning a wide community of voluntaries which includes single developers decides that which parts should be accepted in the beginning codification base and where the package is bearing. On the other manus in commercial unfastened beginning instance a company decides on what should be accepted into package codification base. Here it is the company which maintains the right of first publication and decides what to implement later. The point that he stated is that in the community unfastened beginning instance no market entry barriers exist, and hence can, given the right licence, anyone set up a company and get down merchandising package which is non in the instance of commercial unfastened beginning where market entry barriers exists. Harmonizing to Riehle ( 2007 ) in commercial unfastened beginning instance, the involvement is non in selling package as such, alternatively they sell its proviso, care, and support to stop users.
2.6 Open Source ERP Systems and SMEs
The construct of unfastened beginning ERP is a spot confusing and tough to understand and depict due to the engagement of excessively many wide constructs wholly. By sing literature we did non happen any agreed or more specifically exact definition of OS ERP. Rather it is defined in the context of unfastened beginning and ERP jointly. Most of writers tried to give some kind of general definition and formulates that OSS ERP can be refer to the package plans which are obtained by organisations from sellers for certain fee ; that can be modified or customized without programming to do it fit harmonizing to their ain demands ; and moreover is a system for advanced concerns taking for planetary coaction.
Jakob Nielsen ( 2001 ) explained the jobs with traditional ERP systems by saying that ‘‘ERP package theoretical accounts are excessively complex, difficult to widen and updated which leads to high costs, large development attempts, really big and excess informations constructions. ” He further argued that the integrating and execution are excessively complicated, sulky, dearly-won and unable to run into the demands of clients in most of the instances. Furthermore the user interfaces are frequently musty, inflexible, customization is non possible and the package is work outing non plenty undertakings. Joseph et.al ; ( 2005 ) supported him and stated that the current commercial ERP systems development is confronting a batch of unsolved jobs and with less available solutions to work out them decently. The grounds is that the package development theoretical accounts have non changed much in the last decennaries. Bjorn Johansson ( 2008 ) tries to explicate that package sellers of proprietary ERPs face some challenges, which they need to take attention of if they are to be able to remain in concern in the hereafter. He pointed out that the inquiry arises of whether or non unfastened beginning can function as a utile input for calculating out how to pull off future challenges. He farther illustrates that the challenges for future development of ERPs addressed by proprietary ERP package sellers could be one ground for the high attending among developers of unfastened beginning ERPs.
Hyoseob kim & A ; Cornelia Boldyreff ( 2005 ) explained the outgrowth of OS ERP in a diverse position by saying, that the endeavor information systems ( EIS ) like ERP and CRM applications are important to the successes of an organisation as they handle concern procedures. Recently, although it is still in its babyhood the OSS community has started to travel into this sector i.e. Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) . They further argue that because of the complexness associated with big corporations concern procedures, OSS ERP might ne’er be suited for them while SMEs are more suited campaigners for it as they can more easy adapt themselves to of all time altering concern environments.
Alexander Dreiling et.al ; ( 2005 ) argue that dissatisfaction with traditional endeavor systems can be explained by the configuration between developers and users, which is in favour of the developers, and that a important basis for that is the proprietary nature of package licensed to organisations. With assorted successful unfastened beginning development initiatives the unfastened beginning package development provides us with a feasible option to the proprietary development of endeavor systems. Soh, kin and Tay-Yap ( 14 ) describes that the jobs of ‘misfit ‘ persists in following package bundle, which means that there is a spread between functionality offered by the bundle and the functionality required from the following organisation. This spread can be trounce by the unfastened beginning phenomenon, in ERP context it is referred to as OS ERP.
Svilen Valkov ( 2008 ) highlighted the importance of the construct of unfastened beginning ERP system, harmonizing to him it is for an advanced concern platform which is based on planetary coaction. Thomas Herzog ( 2006 ) stated that unfastened ERP package has less than 5 per centum of the concern package market. Although there is chance for enlargement of this sort of package but the most of the unfastened beginning solutions are excessively little and there aim groups includes largely SMEs.
B. johansson & A ; F. Sudzina ( 2008 ) discussed that detecting the figure of downloads of the Open beginning ERP package ‘s in recent old ages, can give some consciousness sing the involvement shown by organisations for this kind of package. They besides clarify that although the figure of downloads does non give any verification these packages are really adopted by organisations but the premise is that the rate of acceptance will be additions with the addition into downloads. Harmonizing to them by analyzing the figure of downloads of the six different Open beginning ERP suppliers ; indicates that at this minute the SMEs are more interested in utilizing these unfastened beginning ERPs. Open Source ERP seems full of possible for high growing in the hereafter. As companies are seeking more and more for cutting costs and deriving competitory advantage, Open Source seems to be a good option to SMEs and to some big organisations as good ( V. G. Fougatsaro, 2009 ) .
2.7 Critical Success factors of ERP execution:
ERP systems automate the nucleus activities of the organisation by tantrum in the best patterns and re-engineering in the nucleus concern activities or by doing accommodation in the package harmonizing to organisations demand ( Christopher P. Holland and Ben Light, 1999 ) . The successful execution of ERP system promises immense benefits but the black consequence of it is besides fabricated ( Vidyaranya B. Gargeya & A ; Cydnee Brady, 2005 ) .
As stated by Davenport ( 2000 ) , “A well-planned and well-executed ERP Implementation, in concurrence with a good opportunity direction plan, can make a dramatic turnaround for the company” . But from the beginning, ERP executions have been weighed down by failure ( Murray & A ; Coffin, 2001 ) . Almost 9o per centum of the entire ERP executions are late or over budget ( Christopher P. Holland and Ben Light, 1999 ) and at least half of them failed to achieve the coveted consequences ( Yasar, et al.,2000 ) . Harmonizing to The Gartner Group, 70 % of the entire figure of ERP execution fails to be implemented wholly even after three old ages ( Vidyaranya B. Gargeya & A ; Cydnee Brady, 2005 ) . The high failure rate of ERP execution entails for a better apprehension of Critical Success Factors ( Somers et al. , 2000 cited in FFH Nah et al.,2001 ) . There has been considerable research work for placing the Critical Success Factors of ERP execution motivated by the jobs, troubles and hazard related to this ( Loukis, et al. , 2008 ) .
Somers et Al. ( 2001 ) in their survey mentioned 22 Critical Success Factors for the ERP execution. The top 10 CSF of ERP execution proposed by them are- Top Management Support, Project squad competency, Interdepartmental Cooperation, clear ends and aims, undertaking direction, inter departmental communicating, Management of outlooks, Project title-holder, Vendor Support, Careful bundle choice.
Christopher P. Holland and Ben Light ( 1999 ) proposed a Critical Success Factors theoretical account for the ERP execution with strategic and tactical factors. The strategic factor are-Legacy Systems, Business Vision, ERP Strategy, Top Management Support, Project Schedule and programs. And the tactical factors are- Client audience, Personnel, Business Process Change and package constellation, Client credence, Monitoring and feedback, Communication and problem shot.
Esteves and Pastor ( 2000 ) created an incorporate theoretical account of CSF of ERP execution from the old surveies holding four classs of CSF. They mentioned the organisational and technological character of CSF based on strategic and tactical orientation. The strategic-organizational factors are: Sustained direction support, good undertaking range direction, adequate undertaking squad composing, Comprehensive concern procedure reengineering, Adequate undertaking title-holder function, User environment and engagement, and Trust between spouses.
Figure:2.3The model of ERP execution adopted from J. Motwaniet Al. ( 2005 )
These class of surveies of the CSF of ERP execution have identified a utile set of factors and related steps that can increase the concern value generated by ERP systems for the adopting organisations ( Loukis, et al. , 2008 ) . And therefore these can be constructive elements for the choice of ERP.
2.8 Critical Success factors of ERP execution in SMEs:
Doom and Milis ( 2008 ) discovered and classified critical success factors for ERP executions in SMEs. Their survey shows that the CSFs found in the literature applicable for Belgian SMEs in malice of some exclusions. These are- ( 1 ) Vision, Scope and Goals ( 2 ) Culture, communicating and Support ( 3 ) Infrastructure ( 4 ) Approach and ( 5 ) Undertaking Management.
Loh and Koh ( 2004 ) found several Critical Success Factors of ERP execution in the SMEs based on four execution stages. And they besides came up with critical people and critical uncertainnesss for the ERP execution in the SMEs.
Table 2.2CSF of ERP execution by SMEs based on Lohand Koh ( 2004 )
Critical Success Factors
Project leader or director holding the capacity to support and stand for the undertaking in the organisation with concern position and efforts to decide struggles.
Project leader or director ability to find range of ERP execution, program and control. Assess agenda, budget in the visible radiation of mark.
Business Plan and vision
Strategic concern program with touchable and intangible benefits, resources, costs, hazards and timeline.
Top Management support
Full committed top direction to the ERP execution undertaking.
Expectations of the ERP execution needed to communicated at every degree.
ERP squad work and composing
ERP squad should incorporate best people, squad should be cross-functional. Team must cognize organisational concern scheme and ERP ‘s proficient issues.
BPR and minimal customization
Business procedures should fit the new system. Business procedures should be changed to suit the package with as less customization as possible as it is best pattern.
Change direction plan and civilization
Pull offing the alteration in the civilization and organisational construction, and supplying right preparation and regular followup.
Software development, proving and trouble-shooting.
Ability to develop package to associate with bequest systems, apparatus, trial and job work outing capablenesss ease the execution.
Monitoring and rating of public presentation.
Monitoring and rating of undertaking public presentation with regard to marks and program. Ability to obtain information of the affect of ERP execution on concern public presentation.
2.9 Choosing an ERP Solution:
Deploying an Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) system is a important determination for the company that affect critically the future public presentation of the company ( Chun-Chin, et al.,2005 ) and it has consequence on the strategic place of the company ( CJ Stefanou,2001 ) . Due to the complexness in the concern environment and assortment of ERP offerings the choice procedure of ERP systems is someway boring and clip consuming ( Chun-Chin, et al.,2004 ) . ERP systems architectures are non appropriate for all the concern demand ( Sarkis and Sundarraj, 2000 ; Teltumbde, 2000 ; Hong and Kim, 2002 cited in Chun-Chin, et al.,2005 ) . And for this it is really of import for the companies to take a flexible ERP systems and a concerted seller that in bend can be antiphonal to the client demands ( Chun-Chin, et al.,2005 ) .
Chun-Chin, et Al. ( 2005 ) proposed an Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) based model to choose appropriate ERP systems from the alternatives.As they proposed, the ERP system choice classified in two factors- system factors and seller factors. These two factors contains some properties of the ERP systems that needed to be evaluated. The inside informations about the factors are mentioned in the undermentioned tabular array.
Table 2.3 Attribute inside informations of the ERP choice based on Chun-Chin, et Al. ( 2005 )
Matter to measure
Software Systems Factors
Minimum system monetary value, limited one-year care cost, Limited undertaking budget, limited substructure budget
Minimizing the execution clip ( 6-9 months ) .
Handiness of necessary faculties, Parameter scene, High functional fittingness.
Multi currency, multi linguistic communication and multi site option, Permission direction and Database protection
Ease of operation
Ease of larning
Easy graphical interface holding measure by measure bid, guidebook to assist the user, online aid and online acquisition.
Ease of integrating
Ease of in house development
Written in Common scheduling linguistic communication, Platform independency and easy integrating with bing IS.
Automatic informations recovery & A ; backup
Scale of seller
Matching the graduated table of Vendors reputes, evaluate fiscal ability and makings of mentions of the old users.
R & A ; D ability
Technical support capableness
Good service for upgrading the system, ability to back up diverse merchandise line, easy to implement, Technical capableness & A ; experience of the sellers to implement.
Domain Knowledge of the sellers.
Detail guarantee, adequate figure of experient adviser, complete and adequate preparation, good job work outing plan and online services.
2.9.1 Selection of an ERP Solution by SMEs:
The standard for the choice of a peculiar ERP systems show different precedences related to the organisation size ( Birdogan Baki and Kemal Cakar, 2005 ) . Bernroider and Koch ( 2001 ) studied the choice standards of the ERP systems among SME and big organisation. A entire figure of 29 different ERP choice standard was used in the but merely 12 standards were apparent to hold strong relationship with organisational size ( Bernroider and Koch, 2001 ) . Among those criteria- the undermentioned standards are apparent to be more of import to the SMEs while choosing an ERP.
Table 2.4The top prioritized standards of SMEs for choosing ERP based on ( Bernroiderand Koch, 2001 )
Adaptability and flexibleness of package
Adaptability allows package to be modified as the unique concern procedures need to be preserved. Easy to upgrade
Support from the providers during installing, execution, integrating with bing systems, customization and security ( Baki & A ; Kemal,2005 ) .
Short Execution clip
Less clip to implement, less customization needs less clip. The more customization the more clip needed and therefore the increased cost and more resources needed.
Several facet covering with the flexibleness like- Increased organisational flexibleness, Process Improvement and improved invention capablenesss was rated less of import by the SMEs as they are likely to be more flexible from the beginning they do n’t necessitate to utilize an ERP for this ( Bernroider and Koch, 2001 ) .
Another survey on the European SMEs by Everdingen et Al. ( 2000 ) revealed that high importance attributed to the criteria- tantrum with concern processs, flexibleness and cost while choosing an ERP system. The consequences from this survey can be used to compare to other states to account for possible regional differences and in some instances it was described as multicounty European study ( Everdingen et al. , 2000 cited in Bernroider and Koch, 2001 ) . Fit with concern procedure is most of import standards for the SMEs as found in this survey and flexibleness to follow the package is found to be of import as concern procedure is the major issue in SMEs ( Everdingen, et al.,2000 ) .
2.10 Choosing an Open Source ERP solution:
B. Johansson and F. Sudzina ( 2009 ) came up with the consequence from a literature reappraisal of ERP system choice standards. The consequence besides represented a set of common ERP choice standards and compare these standards with regard to Open Source and Proprietary ERP Systems ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) . They presented and made order of those standards harmonizing to the figure of happening of them in the literature. The standards are listed and described in the tabular array below harmonizing to the importance of them in regard to Open Source ERP.
Table: 2.5ERP Selection standards comparing between OS and Proprietary based on ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 )
Ease/speed of execution
Easy to implement and possible to implement in less clip.
Monetary value of the ERP system licensing.
For proprietary user it is of import as they are locked in one seller. For OS support from seller and big enough community which can back up in execution
Proprietary seller attempts to be extremely dependable but OS community find an mistake faster and work out it rapidly while for Proprietary it is much harder because same people have entree to code ever.
Ease of usage
Proprietary ERP attempts to be more user friendly but community of users can do the OS ERP more-or-less acceptable for most of the users.
Customization of codification is of import in footings of OS though it is non the lone characteristic of OS ERP systems any longer, now MS Dynamics AX allows certain degree of customization but the others are still non customizable.
Proprietary ERP allows use of Data Warehouse for integrating but it is possible to be solved by customization in OS ERP.
Proprietary may offer more but as in OS they are less, may be easier to get the hang them.
Upgrading OS ERP is free but for proprietary clients have to purchase upgrade or pay an one-year fee.
These choice standards show obvious difference between OS ERP and Proprietary ERP and these reported standards should be studied farther to find specifically OS ERP choice standards as stated by ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) .
2.10.1 Choosing Open Source ERP by SMEs:
When it comes to the context of SMEs, the choice standards of Open Source ERP mainly- increased adaptability, Decreased trust on a individual provider and decreased cost ( Serrano and Sarriegi,2006 ) . There seems to be several other ground or factors than cost involved in the determination of choosing OS ERP and those could be investigated ( B. Johansson and F. Sudzina, 2009 ) .
2.11 Research Model:
A theoretical theoretical account was developed based on the frame of mention discussed above for the factors that influence SMEs to choose an Open Source ERP. We will look into this theoretical account against the experiential survey and observations.
Figure:2.4TheoraticalModel of Factors/criteria that motivate SMEsto select OS ERP
The Critical Success Factors for both proprietary and OS ERP execution have been discussed in this chapter. The critical success factors found to be applicable in both context in malice of few exclusions. In both instances there are many factors that influence ERP systems choice and some of the factors can be fulfilled merely by proper choice of the ERP systems based on certain choice standards.
Following that the choice standards in general that play really of import function while choosing an ERP by and large and by SMEs have besides been discussed. It is apparent that SMEs stress more on few standards while choosing an ERP systems and few of those standards that are really of import to big organisation got less or instead humbleness by the SMEs and frailty versa.
The choice standards of OS ERP are described and context of SMEs besides mentioned in the frame of mention. The frame of mention suggests that the possible other grounds for choosing OS ERP beside the described grounds could be investigated in footings of SME.
This chapter deals with research doctrine, research attack, assorted available research methods and the manner informations is collected and will be analyzed. We have besides highlighted how we will carry on our research under them.
3.1 Research doctrine
Galliers, ( 1991 ) defined research doctrine as, is a belief about the manner in which informations about a phenomenon should be gathered, analyzed and used. Harmonizing to him the two major research doctrines have been identified in the Western tradition of scientific discipline, viz. rationalist besides known as scientific ; and interpretivist besides called anti rationalist.
Easterby-Smith et Al. ( 1991, P:27 ) highlighted some cardinal characteristics of these two doctrine paradigm options in order to distinguish them. Harmonizing to them in rationalist attack the perceiver is independent, research focal point is on facts, research worker formulates hypothesis and so prove them ; and the preferable methods of research is normally done by taking big samples. On the other manus in Phenomenological pattern the perceiver is portion of what is observed, researcher focal point in on significances, attempts to understand what is go oning by developing thoughts through initiation from informations and the includes probe of little samples.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill ( 2003 ) besides supported Easterby-Smith et Al. ( 1991 ) by depicting positivism as scientific based attack where research worker formulates a hypothesis from some theory, trials that hypothesis by experiment and so examines the consequences to corroborate a theory or suggests for alterations. They described phenomenological attack as ‘‘the manner people experience societal phenomena in the universe in which they live ” . Here the research worker tries to understand what is go oning and why it is go oning. The research worker ‘s focal point is on those contexts where events occur and use qualitative informations to set up position of phenomena.
For any sort of survey we have a pick to choose among the two research doctrines, for this survey as it involves qualitative informations, utilizing phenomenological doctrine is more sensible for us because the information is chiefly qualitative and this kind of informations normally in copiousness and it will allow for us to develop our thoughts on that footing.
3.2 Research Approach
Research attack means that what methodological analysis has been adopted to carry on a research. Sekaran, ( 2003 ) identified two types of research attacks. These includes inductive and deductive. Incase if research workers use both side by side, so it is known as abductive attack, indicates a combination of inductive and deductive. Harmonizing to Sekaran ( 2003 ) , tax write-off is the procedure of geting at reasoned decision by logical generalisation of a known fact while initiation is the procedure where certain phenomena is observed and decisions are made on that footing.
In research chiefly two wide methods of concluding are referred known as deductive and inductive attacks ( S. M. Aqil Burney, 2008 ) . Deductive concluding starts from more general to more specific, informally called top-down attack and decisions are drawn logically from available facts ; while inductive concluding plants from specific observations to broader generalisations, informally known as underside up attack and decisions are drawn on available facts ( S. M. Aqil Burney, 2008 ) .
Hussey and Hussey ( 1997 ) defined deductive research as “a survey in which a conceptual and theoretical construction is developed which is so tested by empirical observation ; therefore peculiar cases are deducted from general influences.” And deductive research is defined as ‘‘a survey in which theory is developed from the observation of empirical world ; therefore general illations are induced from peculiar cases, which is the contrary of the deductive method since it involves traveling from single observation to statements of general forms or Torahs ” .
Sometimes research workers uses both inductive and deductive attacks, that is known as abductive attack. The attack takes findings which are common, explicate them and work out the issues related to collected informations. The consequence is normally that facts are in a proper order and can supply chance to cover with issues confidently ( Reichertz, 2004 ) .
The abductive attack will be used as we have to travel back and Forth between empirical findings and theory repeatedly because it involves combination of inductive and deductive and is favored by most of the research workers.
3.3 Research Methods
Research method refers to systematic, focussed and orderly aggregation of informations for the intent of obtaining information from them, to or reply a peculiar research job or inquiry ( Ghuari & A ; Gronhuag, 2005 ) .
There are two types of research methods.
Malhotra ( 1996 ) defines quantitative research as ‘‘a methodological analysis that seeks to quantify the informations and it applies specially in some signifier of statistical analysis ” . Quantitative research is a sort of specific research which involves big representative samples and comparatively structured informations aggregation processs ( Parasuraman, 1991 ) . Qualitative research involves look intoing sentiments, behaviours and experiences from the informant points of position. Walker et Al. ( 2008 ) , described qualitative research as procedure to detect and explicate the complex nature of human nature. Harmonizing to him this is sort of research where information obtained is normally thorough, flush and holistic.
Maylor and Blackmon ( 2005 ) illustrate that, when a survey includes statistical decision, it is appropriate to utilize quantitative research while if the research deals with procedures that involves analysing non-numeral information it ‘s better to utilize the qualitative attack.
Quantitative research requires a immense sum of informations to look into and so decisions are drawn on that footing which is non possible in this instance. Research workers in the field of Enterprise systems usually use qualitative method. Therefore this method is used for carry oning our survey which is more equal with respect to enterprise systems.
3.4 Research Strategy
Research scheme means that which research design option is used for survey to work out the job. There are a figure of research schemes including, studies, interviews, instance survey, experiment, descriptive anthropology and action research. Research schemes are similar to literary genres, bespeaking really loosely the manner of the work like a study, an experiment or a instance survey ( A. Berkely Thomas, p.20 ) .
Uma Sekaran ( 2003, p.119 ) illustrates that nature of surveies may be either explorative or descriptive, or may be conducted to prove hypotheses. Harmonizing to him the exploratory survey is used when there is small or no information available for a state of affairs which is to work out ; it is good for obtaining a well clasp of the phenomena of the involvement while the descriptive survey is used when the intent is to depict the features of the variables of the involvement in a state of affairs. Parasuraman, ( 1991 ) defined descriptive survey as the survey which is used to bring forth informations that describes the composing of relevant group including clients, sales representatives, and organisations. Surveies that includes hypothesis proving in order to explicate the nature of certain relationships by certain factors are known as hypothesis proving surveies. ( Uma Sekaran, 2003, p.124 ) .
The survey will be explorative in nature and will be used for this survey due to fact as Yin ( 2003 ) pointed out, that exploratory survey applies to those researches where pick of research includes new constructs and there is non adequate stuff available for those subjects. This applies to our pick of research. Surveys and interviews will be taken as a research scheme. .
3.5 Data Collection
There are two types of informations. One is Primary informations and the other is Secondary informations. Primary information is that which is obtained through some agencies like studies, interviews and observations etc while secondary informations is that which is already there and is available to us in the signifier books, diaries etc. Uma Sekaran ( 2003, p.59 ) defined primary informations as ‘‘the information gathered for research from the existent site of happening of events ” while secondary informations is obtained from bing resources.
Both types of informations will be used for carry oning this survey. The secondary information is obtained from available resources like books, diaries, articles and web sites of assorted companies by utilizing different hunt engines. While the primary informations will be obtained from the respondents. For this we will carry on interview from two experts who have knowledge in this sphere and questionnaire study from the SMEs who have implemented Open Source ERP.
Sampling is method of choosing a certain figure of units from a entire population. ( Clark and Hockey, 1981 ) . Uma Sekaran ( 2003, p. 266 ) defined trying as the procedure of choosing equal figure of elements or instances from the population in order to understand its belongingss and look into them. Sauder et.al 2003 argued that trying gives us different methods to choose a subset of population which represents the whole population.
There are two major types of sampling, i.e. chance and non chance trying. In chance sampling, the elements in the population have equal opportunity of being selected and is used when the representatives of the sample is of importance in the involvements of wider generalisation. In non chance trying the elements in the population do non hold predetermined opportunity of being selected and is used when generalisation is less critical and other factors like clip are of importance. The drawback of this sampling technique is that generalisation of consequences is compromised Uma Sekaran ( 2003, p. 269 ) .
Marshall ( 1996 ) illustrates that for quantitative surveies it is better to utilize chance trying while for qualitative surveies non chance sampling is appropriate. Non chance sampling is either convenience sampling or purposive sampling. Convenience sampling is that where the respondents are handily available and is easy to entree them for acquiring information. On the other manus purposive sampling is that where it is indispensable to acquire information from specific group of people who have more cognition about certain facts ( Uma Sekaran, 2003, p.276 ) . Polkinghorne, 2005 highlighted purposive sampling as the method when the focal point is on to obtain rich information from more specific beginning instead than holding immense informations from big of beginnings.
For this survey the non chance sampling technique is used because it was non possible for us to take chance trying into history due the deficit of clip and less handiness to resources that are critical for making this. Non chance trying takes the signifier convenience or purposefully trying. For taking interviews from experts the purposefully sampling will be used while for taking responses from SMEs the convenience sampling will be used.
3.7 Analysis of Datas
Data analysis is the procedure of telling and forming natural informations so that it can provides utile information. Raw information is in many signifiers like studies responses, and observations which is non that much utile but when it converted into information through information analysis it becomes utile ( S.E. Smith, 2008 ) . Sekaran ( 2003 ) illustrates that when informations is obtained through trying the following measure is to analyse that information, known as informations analysis. The information analysis needs more attending and attention when obtained informations is qualitative in nature ( Walker et al. , 2008 ) .
( Will be finalized after empirical findings )
3.8 Credibility of Datas
Walker et Al. ( 2008 ) stated that subjectiveness affects qualitative research so credibleness of informations should be accentuated in this kind of research. Credibility can be enhanced by cut downing incorrect replies and paying attending on two of import footings i.e. dependability and cogency ( Saunders et Al. 2007 ) . Carmines and Zeller ( 1982 ) described that when there is a grade of consistence in measurings which are repeated for same phenomena known as dependability while cogency refers to the grade to which a 1 ‘s measures what it supposed to mensurate that how much the measurings accurate. This indicates that dependability trades with consistence of consequences while cogency with their truth.
( Will be finalized after empirical findings )
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