Answer TWO of the following four questions, your choice. Each essay should be approximately 2 pages (double spaced—one page single spaced). Establish an introduction in the beginning of your essay, and use specific examples and details to clarify each of your points. Be sure to answer every part of the question.
Describe briefly where Islam spread from its early years to the end of the 15th century. How were these areas influenced by Islam? How was Islam shaped by its contact with new areas? What aspects of Islam served as unifying forces, and which aspects led to conflict?
Examine the spread of Buddhism into China. How did Buddhist thought influence China? How did Chinese cultural traditions influence Buddhism?
How could the central lord-retainer relationship of feudalism create political and social order? How could it be used to create powerful states? What opportunities and benefits did the serf have in the feudal system?
4. What could the emphasis on human sacrifice tell you about the Aztec state and religion? In what ways was it a continuation of traditional Mesoamerican practices? In what ways was it not? How does it compare with other religious practices studied so far?
5. What role did disease play in China and Europe in the fourteenth century? How were these societies influenced by the outbreak and spread of disease? How did they recover?