Essay Summary of Scientific Method and Research

The _________ variable is the presumed cause of another variable while the ________ variable is the presumed effect.a) independent; dependentb) dependent; independentc) independent; extraneousd) independent; mediating
2-A(n) ______________ variable is one that is not under the control of the researcher but that may be influencing the outcome of the experiment.a) independentb) extraneousc) mediatingd) moderating
3-A researcher is interested in the effects of teaching styles on learning. She randomly assigns students to either a lecture-based class taught at 8:00 a. m. or a discussion-based class taught at 2:00 p. m. Her results reveal that students in the discussion-based class performed better than those in the lecture-based class. In this example the time that the class is taught could be considered a(n) _________ variable, making it impossible to establish a causal connection between teaching method and classroom performance.a) independentb) dependentc) extraneousd) mediating

7) Several recent studies have found that moderate drinkers of alcohol have lowered levels of heart disease risk than non-drinkers. It has been hypothesized that moderate drinking may reduce stress which in turn may lead to a reduction in the risk of heart disease. In this example lowered stress levels would be considered a(n) __________ variable.a) independentb) dependentc) extraneousd) mediating
8) A(n) ___________ variable specifies how a causal relationship between two variables is different depending on a particular situation or circumstance. For example, if a researcher finds that a new experimental drug is effective in alleviating depression in young adult but not older adults.a) mediating *b) moderatingc) extraneousd) independent
9) According to your text there are three conditions for making justified claims of cause and effect. Which of the following is NOT one of these conditions:a) the independent and dependent variables must be related *b) the dependent variable must be manipulated by the researcherc) the independent variable must precede the dependent variabled) no other plausible explanations between the independent and dependent variables should exist
11) What does it mean to say that an observation is “objective? ”a) the observation is empiricalb)it is done by a trained, professional scientistc)the observation has a rational basis *d)it is unaffected by the observer’s personal biases
12) Experimental research, as opposed to qualitative and nonexperimental quantitative research, allows us to make statements about cause-and-effect relationships. Why is this so?a)Experimental research involves studying how two variables covary.b)Experimental research uses statistical analysis. *c)In experimental research, we can observe the effects of manipulating variables under controlled conditions.d) Experimental research uses objective observations.
1. According to your text, what is probably the most commonly cited disadvantage of using laboratory experiments to learn about human behavior?
2. a)because they tend to be done in highly controlled settings, their results may not be generalizable to the real world
3. b)with their mechanistic approach to human behavior, they ignore the participants’ thoughts and emotions
4. c)operational definitions reduce the abstract concept to a trivial level, making broad interpretations difficult at best
5. d)because they tend to use other species, the results are usually irrelevant to human
6. behavior
7. 8. 19) Which of the following would not be considered a field experiment?
9.a)effects of computer-based instruction on computing confidence in a teacher training
10. rogram
11. b)effects of music on memory performance among introductory psychology students
12. c)effects of self-selected incentives on productivity among auto workers
13. d)effects of television violence on playground aggression among kindergarteners. 14. 15. 20) What is the main difference between experimentation done in a field setting and experimentation done in a laboratory?
16. a)in field experimentation, variables are not manipulated
17. b)in field experimentation, no attempt is made to control extraneous variables
18. *c)in field experimentation, the setting is “real life” and not contrived
19)in field experimentation, one can study only a small number of people An increasing number of researchers are conducting experiments over the Internet because of the advantages it affords. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of using the Internet to conduct and experiment? *a) the experiment is brought to the participant instead of the participant coming to the experimentb) there is a less experimental controlc) there is a greater probability of self-selectiond) there is a greater probability of dropout of participants What is the primary weakness of a correlational study?
a) an inability to determine if two variables are associatedb) we cannot determine whether a relationship is direct or inversec) correlational studies tend to be artificiald) we cannot establish cause and effect with a correlational study
Qualitative research can be described in the following way:a)it is objective, involves multiple methods, and focuses on people in subculturesb)it is opinionated, involves two specific methods, and focuses on cultures, not peoplec)it is emotional, involves historical methods, and focuses on people with odd cultural practicesd)it is interpretive, involves multiple methods, and focuses on people in their natural environment ___________ research is primarily descriptive and useful in theory generation while _______ research is more useful in testing hypotheses.

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a. Quantitative; qualitative
*b. Qualitative; quantitative
c. Experimental; correlational
d. Cross-sectional; longitudinal

45) Qualitative researchers use many methods in part to

a) find one that produces the expected outcome.
b)make the process more like an experiment. *
c)provide a better understanding of the phenomenon being investigated.
d) verify their quantitative observations.

46) If a researcher joined a religious cult to see how members are recruited and why affiliation is so strong, she would be using thea)ex post facto method.b)phenomenological method. *c)participant-observer method.d)experimental method.
47) A “theory” is best defined asa)a researchers best guess about the reality of the phenomenon he is studying.b)a series of hypotheses not yet supported by empirical evidence. *c)a group of logically organized and deductively related laws.d) the best tentative solution to a specific problem, open to change.
After you have developed a research idea, the next step is toa)determine if the study is feasible. *b)review the literature.c)write a scientific hypothesis..d)write a null hypothesis.
10) The primary reason for doi?ng a literature review is toa)determine which statistical test to use.b)find the proper phrasing of the scientific hypothesis. *c)determine the current state of knowledge in the area.d)determine who should be in the participant pool.
11) When planning a research project, scientists usually review the literature (published papers, books, etc.
12) on their topic of interest. Which of the following is NOT a standard reason to do so?a) to understand the current state of knowledge about your topicb) to see whether the study you plan to do has already been donec) to learn about methodological approaches to and problems with studying your topic *d) to find out about funding sources for your study
What part of a journal article should you read to get an overview of the research to determine if you want to read the entire article? *a) abstractb) introductionc) methodsd) discussion E-mail can be used in the research process bya)using it to get on-line references from the Internet.b) allowing you to communicate with other scientists and authors.c) allowing you to send phone messages.d) none of the above.
25) If you find an article that you would like to use for your research but are unable to locate it in your library, your next step should be toa) drive to the nearest “research” library where you will likely find the article.b) search through your library’s microfiche files. *c) use inter-library loan.d) search again using broader search terms.
26) Which of the following is probably the major concern about internet resources in exploring your research idea?a)the accuracy of information at some Web sitesb)the accuracy information posted on Listserv’sc)the theft of your research idea by hackersd)the quality of information received by e-mail from other researchers in the field
27) When establishing the validity of a web page how should you evaluate its currency?a) the general rule of thumb is that pages more than 10 years old should not be used in scientific researchb) because scientific advances occur so quickly, web pages more than one year old should not be considered validc) it is inappropriate to include information about when the page was produced because hey may be misleading *d) the date of publication and frequency of updating should be posted on the page as a clue to its currency
28) Suppose you want the most up-to-date information on a particular topic of psychological research. What is your best option? You shoulda)read the Annual Review of Psychology. *b)attend a conference of a psychological association.c)peruse the journals in that topic’s general area.d) talk to your professors.
Why do scientists hold and attend annual or semi-annual professional conferences? *a)to catch up on very recent and/or on-going research )to meet each other personally, in order to better judge each other’s workc)to get away from teaching commitmentsd)to bypass having to read all the literature
30) Once you have reviewed the literature on a topic, you are in a position toa)begin collecting data. *b)determine the feasibility of your study.c)formulate a research problem.d)write a review article for the Annual Review of Psychology.
31) Feasibility of a study refers toa) how well you have defined the research problem.b) the specificity of the question.c) whether the hypothesis is testable. *d) whether or not the study can actually be conducted.
32) After you have determined it is feasible to conduct your study, the next step is toa)prepare a clear and exact statement of the research problem.b)determine what the null hypothesis will be.c)conduct a literature review.d)collect data.
It is useful for a research problem to be stated as precisely as possible becausea)specific questions are more likely to be proved correct.b)the more specific the question is, the easier it is to analyze the data.c)a specific question allows the researcher to focus on only one variable at a time. *d)specific questions help the researcher decide what techniques, participants, and easures to use.
35) A research problem states the issue to be studied in question form. A scientific hypothesis *a)states the predicted relationship between/among variables.b)specifies the procedure that the experimenter will use to answer the question.c)is another name for the research problem.d)states what statistics will be used to answer the research problem.
A scientific hypothesis isa)a predicted relation that exists among the variables.b)a tentative solution to the research problem.c)sometimes derived from theories. *d)all of the above.
43) The null hypothesis isa)a tentative solution to the research problem.b)the hypothesis that is actually tested.c)the prediction that a negative correlation exists among the variables.d)all of the above.
Designing management experiments often presents the researcher with ethical dilemmas, in which he or she musta)choose the appropriate participant pool without eliminating people who want to participate in the study.b)decide which coworkers should be co-authors on the resulting paper. *c)weigh potential costs to participants against the potential gain to be realized from the experiment.d)determine whether to inform participants of the results of the experiment.
What is meant by “informed consent? “a) only people over 18 years of age should participate in psychology experimentsb) agreement to participate in a psychological experiment forms a binding contract; the participant cannot back out once he or she consents *c) before they agree to take part in an experiment, participants must be informed of all aspects of the study that may influence their decision to participated) participants must approve the results before they are published 20) Sometimes it is impossible to “inform” the participant fully at the beginning of an experiment because ) some participants (e. g. , infants) may not be competent enough to give their informed consent. *b) disclosing all information about the experiment might influence participants’ behavior and invalidate the experiment.c) participants cannot always guarantee their ability to come to all sessions of an experiment.d) the research design being used is too sophisticated for participants to understand.
In which of the following studies would it be ethically necessary to obtain informed consent to collect and use the data? *a) trying a new behavior modification technique on a hyperactive 5 year old child
b) seeing what proportion of pedestrians will pick up a piece of litter next to a trash canc) seeing if a wait person touching a customer on the arm will increase the size of a tip
When writing the research report Jane thought that Dr. Handle’s summary of a prior study was presented in a very understandable way so she copied the summary and put it in her report. Immediately following the summary she put in a reference to Dr. Handle which she assumed would tell the reader that she had taken the summary from that reference. In copying this summary she hasa) been dishonest.b) plagiarized.c) adequately indicated that Handle wrote the summary.d) demonstrated a lack of sophistication in preparing a research report.
1. Which of the following is true regarding authorship on scientific papers?
2. a) it is important that everyone who contributes to the paper receive authorship
3. b) only one person can be listed as an author on most scientific papers
4.c) only individuals making significant contributions to the writing, conceptualization, or 5. design of the study should receive authorship. Individuals performing subsidiary tasks 6. e. g. , collecting data are typically referenced in a footnote
7. d) writing scientific papers is not widely valued and so questions of authorship are irrelevant In order to establish the reliability of a measure of intelligence, Kevin administers two forms of the test to a group of students.
Which of the following reliability coefficient values would indicate the most reliability for the test?a) 0. 35 *b) 0. 85c) -0. 85d) 2. 20
Suppose you have created a new method of diagnosing anxiety disorders. How could you demonstrate that your method is a construct valid?
a) teach several licensed clinicians to use your method, have them use it for a year, and see if the amount of anxiety diagnosis in their practice is consistent with population normsb) use your method to diagnose the same group of participants repeatedly over the course of several years, and see if you consistently arrive at the same diagnosis for a given individualc) have several specialists read about your new technique and invite their opinions *d) use your method to diagnose a group of participants, then see if your diagnoses match with diagnoses taken from other, established methods
7) Tom wanted to assess the reliability of his measure of anxiety so he had a group of introductory psychology students complete the measure of anxiety on march 3rd and again on march 25th. He then compared the scores that the students made on the two testing occasions using a statistical technique called correlation. He used this quantitative index as his measure of reliability. Tom used what method to assess reliability? *a) test-retestb) equivalent formsc) split-halfd) Cronback’s alpha A(n) __________ is a list of all members of a population.a) parameterb) norming group *c) sampling frame ) equal probability selection method 36) A major advantage of randomly selecting participants from a population is thata) it allows you to do your study with fewer participants and still find statistical significance in your results.b) you can be more confident that it was the manipulation of the independent variable that caused the changes observed in the dependent variable.. *c) you can be more confident that your sample is representative of the population.d) it is more likely that your sample will have the characteristics you need it to have. 1. In a truly random sample from a population,
2. ) all participants will be matched on important characteristics.
3. *b) all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected.
4. c) gender distribution should be 50% male and 50% female.
5. d) every member of the population has a 50:50 chance of being selected.
6. 7. 38) Suppose you wish to test a representative sample of people in your theology class on attitudes toward the idea of women as priests. There are 40 people in the class, 30 females and 10 males. What would be the best strategy?
8. a) simple random sample
9. b) cluster sample
10. c) stratified sample
11. ) convenience sample
12. 13. 39) ____________ is to ____________ as population is to parameter.
14. a) Sample; statistic
15. b) Statistic; sample
16. c) Sample; element
17. d) Random sampling; nonrandom sampling A subset of data drawn from the larger population of interest is aa) population. *b) sample.c) parameter.d) quota.
41)To study career aspirations among high school students in Alabama, a researcher randomly selects 5% of the state’s school districts and gives all the students in each district a survey designed to measure career goal. What sampling procedure is being used here?
a) quotab) stratified *c) clusterd) d EPSEM
Two middle school teachers want to find which of three new violence prevention programs would be most effective in their school. From September through November, program #1 is in effect. It is then replaced by program #2 from December through February, and then program #3 runs from March through May. In June the teachers examined fight reports for the school year and find that there were 14 fights in the fall, 10 fights in the winter, and 6 fights in the spring. They conclude that program #3 is most effective is stopping violence. Which of the following is a plausible rival hypothesis to their interpretation?a) fighting decreases in spring, anywayb) the effects of programs #1 and #2 could have carried over into the springc) whatever program came third might have been associated with the fewest fights *d) all of the above are plausible alternative explanations *
1) Scientists have an obligation to conduct well designed studies and * *a) to communicate the results. *b) to do all necessary follow-up studies before reporting the findings. *c) to determine what knowledge is still missing. *d) to replicate their own research. *
2) You should submit your research for publication ifa) you think the study is scientifically significant.b) you think the study was soundly designed and executed.c) you think the study is scientifically significant and you think the study was soundly designed and executed.d) it will help you to attain your career goals.
3) The “abstract” appears before the body of the report anda) summarizes the entire article in great detail.
b) summarizes the entire article in approximately 200 words.c) presents the results of the study in summary form.d) is designed to “hook” the potential reader into reading the whole article.
4) The “introduction” should begina) broadly with a general introduction to the problem.b) focused on what the research question is.c) broadly with as much literature cited as possible.d) with a vague description of the problem, and clarify as you proceed.
5) The “introduction” should be funnel-shaped in that you starta) with the specific research problem and “funnel” the reader into the methods section.b) with a specific literature review and broaden into the all of the possible research problems.c) with a very broad perspective of science, narrow it to psychology, and then focus on your hypothesis.d) with a broad description of the problem and end with the specific statement of the problem.
6) The “introduction” should citea) as much of the literature in the field as possible to save the readers library time. *b) as much literature as needed to show continuity between what has been done and what you are going to do.c) as little literature as possible, as publication costs are exorbitant.d) any previous research that is remotely related to your study.
7) The “method” sectiona) is omitted in many publications due to its tedious nature. *b) contains a description of the statistical tests used and the results of those tests. * *c) is complete if it meets the “criterion of replication. ” *d) describes how you arrived at your specific hypothesis. * *
8) Which of the following would NOT be included in a “method” section of a publication? *a) participants *b) apparatus * *c) implications *d) materials * *
9) The “procedure” subsection of “method” * *a) should specify what was done from first encounter between the researcher and the participant until the last.b) should specify what equipment was used, including the brand names. *c) should specify the statistical tests that were used and how they were used. *d) should contain only the instructions given to the participant and, therefore, it is only included in the report when human participants are used. * *
10) The “participants’” subsection of “method” should include all of the following EXCEPT * *a) how the participants were instructed. *b) how participants were assigned to groups. *c) how many participants were studied. *d) how the participants were compensated for their participation. *
11) The “results” section should include all of the following EXCEPT *a) the statistical tests used. *b) the levels of significance. *c) summarized data such as group means. * *d) an evaluation the data. * *
12) The “discussion” section should include all of the following EXCEPT * *a) any data not mentioned in the results section. *b) what the study contributes. *c) how it has helped to solve the research problem. *d) what the theoretical implications are. * *
13) Which section of an APA-formatted article should develop the hypothesis? * *a) introduction *b) method *c) results *d) discussion *
14) Which section of an APA-formatted article should present the way participants are selected? *a) introduction * *b) method *c) results *d) discussion * *
15) Which section of an APA-formatted article should cite the relevant literature? * *a) introduction *b) method *c) results *d) none of the above * *
16) Which section of an APA-formatted article should interpret the data? *a) introduction *b) method *c) results * *d) discussion * *
17) Which section of an APA-formatted article should specify how the data were analyzed? *a) introduction *b) method * *c) results *d) discussion *
18) Which section of an APA-formatted article allows the authors the freedom to discuss their opinion? *a) introduction *b) method *c) results * *d) discussion * *
19) A discussion of prior research in the field can usually be found in *a) the introduction and method sections. * *b) the introduction and discussion sections. *c) only in the introduction. *d) only in the discussion. * *
20) Which of the following is the proper order of sections of a research paper in APA format? *a) abstract, introduction, method, results, tables, discussion, figures. *b) introduction, method, discussion, results, tables, figures. *c) 0abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, tables, figures. *d) abstract, introduction, results, method, discussion, figures, tables. * *
21) It is useful to organize the introduction section in terms of which of the following shapes?

a0) figure 8
b0) funnel
c0) diamond
d0) pyramid

22) Which of the following should NOT be part of the introduction?

a0) a discussion of relevant existing research
b0) explicitly stating the research hypothesis
c0) a general introduction to the problem area
d0) describing how the research was conducted

23) Which section of the paper should describe exactly how the experiment was conducted, including participants, materials, and procedures used?

a0) introduction
b0) method
c0) results
d0) discussion

24) The results section should indicate

a0) which participants were used in the study.
b0) the stimulus materials used in the study.
c0) the alpha level and the p-value.
d0) the likely applicability of the study to real world settings.

25) Which of the following comes at the end of the research report?a) the abstractb) all of the raw data from the studyc) references and tablesd) printouts of all SPSS analysis
26) Which section of the research report contains the statistical analysis of the data?a) introductionb) methodc) resultsd) discussion
27) Which of the following pieces of information should NOT be included on the title page?a) running headb) institutional affiliationc) author noted) all of these should be included on the title page
28) The introduction of your paper should begin on pagea) one.b) two.c) three.d) four.
29) Where in the introduction would you find a statement of the researcher’s hypothesis?a) in the opening paragraphb) before discussing previous researchc) at the end of the introduction sectiond) there is no standard; you may find it anywhere in the introduction
30) To avoid plagiarism be sure toa) use quotation marks for other’s words.b) give a citation to the original source.c) substantially reword what others have said, but give credit to them for the ideas. *d) all of the above.
31) In describing participants you should be careful not to use biased or demeaning terms. There are three particular areas to be careful about. Which of the following is NOT one of them? * *a) species *b) gender *c) raced) disabilities * *
32) When beginning a research paper, it is frequently helpful to *a) begin with the introduction since that is the first part of the paper. * *b) begin with the method section since that is the easiest to write. *c) write the abstract first since it may help you get an overview of the paper. *d) write the references section first since you know what you read. * *
33) The essence of a research report is clear communication. To achieve this, you must have *a) an orderly presentation of ideas. *b) continuity of words, concepts and thematic development. *c) smoothness and economy of expression. *d) all of the above * *
34) Representing another author’s ideas or statements as your own is *a) unethical and unprofessional. *b) called plagiarism. *c) avoidable by giving credit to the author and paraphrasing. * *d) all of the above * *
35) Short quotes (few than 40 words) should be whereas long quotes should be * . *a) included if absolutely necessary; avoided at all cost. *b) cited with the author’s name; cited in the references but not the test * *c) inserted in the text; displayed in a freestanding block without quotation marks *d) none of the above. *
36) You should write out numbers (e. g. , twenty five) when * *a) beginning a sentence. *b) it is larger than ten. *c) it represents something other than data. *d) using the metric system. * *
37) Imagine that you want to paraphrase the findings from a research project published by Glenn Simpson and Dawn Hager in 1989 titled “The Role of Crackle Crunch Cereal as a Cognitive Enhancer” – which of the following in-text citations would be correct according to APA style? *a) Simpson, G. and Hager, D. 1989) found that eating Crackle Crunch cereal was directly related to higher exam scores, but these effects dissipated after 2 hours. *b) Simpson and Hager (1989) found that eating Crackle Crunch cereal was directly * related to higher exam scores, but these effects dissipated after 2 hours (p. 88). * *c) Eating Crackle Crunch cereal has been found to enhance exam scores at least in the * short-term (Simpson & Hager, 1989). *d). Eating Crackle Crunch cereal has been found to enhance exam scores at least in the * short-term (Simpson, G. & Hager, D. 1989). * *
38) Imagine that you are paraphrasing a passage from two articles – one published in 2002 titled “Unconscious Perception in Formation of Love Attitudes” by M. Mutchnick and R. Peltier and another article by M. Simpson, B. Simpson, and B. Grant published in 1999 and titled “The Origins of Love: An Evolutionary Perspective”. Which of the following in-text citations would be correct according to APA style? *a) Two recent studies have investigated how love develops (Simpson, M. , Simpson, B. , & * Grant, B. , 1999; Mutchnick, M. & Peltier, R. 2002). *b) Two recent studies have investigated how love develops (Simpson, Simpson, & Grant, * 1999; Mutchnick & Peltier, 2002). *c) Two recent studies have investigated how love develops (Mutchnick, M. & Peltier, R. , * 2002; Simpson, M. , Simpson, B. , & Grant, B. , 1999). * *d) Two recent studies have investigated how love develops (Mutchnick, & Peltier 2002; * Simpson, Simpson, & Grant, 1999). * *
39) Which of the following would be the best way to describe the age of research participants in a research report?a) most of the participants were elderly *b) all of the participants in the study were over 65 * *c) the age of the participants ranged from 66 to 84 *d) it is unethical to include information about the age of your participants * *
40) If citing multiple studies how should they be listed? * *a) alphabetically *b) by year of publication (most recent first) *c) by year of publication (most recent last) *d) by importance * *
41) Which of the following is correct regarding the reporting of race and ethnicity?a) your descriptions should very general and inclusive * *b) your descriptions should be as specific as possible. *c) you should only include this information if the participants are from a minority group. *d) you should never include information about race or ethnicity. * *
42) According to APA rules for in-text citations, when is it appropriate to use the designation “et al. ” in place of author names? * *a) if there are more than 6 authors *b) if there are more than 2 authors *c) the second and each subsequent time an article is cited (if at least 2 authors) *d) none of the above is correct *
43) A “level 1” heading should be *a) flush left with upper and lower case letters *b) flush left, boldface, with upper and lower case letters * *c) centered boldface, in upper and lower case letters *d) centered boldface, all upper case letters * *
44) Which of the following is the correct form for a reference listing of a journal article? *a) Hernandez, Juan, & Briscoe, Jane (2002). The role of bedtime stories on children’s * nightmares. The Journal of Dreaming, 88, 35-42. * *b) Hernandez, J. & Briscoe, J. (2002). The role of bedtime stories on children’s * nightmares. The Journal of Dreaming, 88, 35-42.a) Hernandez, J. & Briscoe, J. (2002). The role of bedtime stories on children’s * nightmares. The Journal of Dreaming, 88, 35-42. *a) Hernandez, Juan, & Briscoe, Jane. The role of bedtime stories on children’s * nightmares. The Journal of Dreaming, 88, 35-42 (2002). * *
45) When you prepare your final manuscript for publication you should *a) use single spacing and a 12-point font *b) use 12-point font and both left and right margin justification * *c) double space the body of the paper and use a 12-point font *d) double-space the body of the paper and use a 16-point font *
46) Particularly prestigious journals like those published by APA and APS *a) accept articles for publication only after a large fee is collected. *b) generally only accept articles if they were solicited. *c) only 50% of the articles submitted. * *d) only 15% of the articles submitted. * *
47) The DOI system *a) is a method used to review all submitted articles. * *b) is used to identify information on digital records. *c) is outdated and will soon be replaced by electronic records. *d) is a method designed to assist young researchers in the writing process. *
48) Typically the time limit for oral presentations is *a) 8 to 10 minutes. * *b) 12 to 15 minutes. *c) 20 to 30 minutes. *d) up to the presenter. * *
49) When you make an oral presentation of your research you should *a) provide as much methodological detail as possible. *b) read your presentation verbatim so you don’t leave out anything important. *c) expect to talk very quickly so that you can get all of the information to fit within the * time frame. * *d) strive for a conversational style rather than reading your presentation. *
50) When making a poster presentation you should *a) expect to remain with your poster during the entire session (usually about an hour). *b) use a large font that is readable from about 10 feet. *c) bring copies of your research paper to give to anyone who is interested. * *d) all of the above are good recommendations *
Essay questions

1) Describe the organization of a typical research report from title page to figures.
2) Discuss the information that should be included in the abstract. How long is the typical abstract?
3) Describe the introduction section of a research report including organization and the types of information typically included.
4) Describe the methods section of the research paper. Be sure to describe each subsection typically included.
5) Describe what is included in a results section of a research report. Write a hypothetical results section being careful to include all relevant information.
6) What information is included in a discussion section? Describe the typical organizational structure of this section.
7) Discuss the APA writing guideline relating to language – specificity, sensitivity to labels, and acknowledging participants.
8) Provide examples illustrating several of the rules for in-text citations – e. g. , using direct quotes, paraphrasing without using direct quotes, and citing multiple studies.
9) What is the DOI system? How should it be incorporated in your reference?
10) Describe the steps involved in submitting a manuscript for publication, from selection of the appropriate journal to final publication.

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