Education Essays – Citizenship Education School

How Citizenship instruction is educated and implemented within Scots schools.
1. Abstract
This undertaking aims to look into how Citizenship instruction is presented and implemented within Scots schools. Scotland differs from the remainder of the United Kingdom in that citizenship as a topic has non been officially introduced, instead it is seen as being ‘active’ and should be taught in all topics across the school course of study, therefore impacting both inside and outside the school.

The information presented I this undertaking was gathered during the six hebdomads of my 2nd arrangement in 2008 in a non-denominational province school in East Lothian and was carried out in the signifier of staff interviews and a pupil’s focal point group. During the staff interviews, their positions on the different elements of larning within Citizenship instruction ; knowledge & A ; apprehension, skills & A ; aptitudes and values, were discussed. A pupil’s focal point group was set up and the group discussed ; citizenship in the school: societal & amp ; moral issues, rights & A ; duties, the school & A ; wider community, political relations & A ; democracy and the environment.
The consequences show that, the school are actively advancing the elements of citizenship in most countries of its subject’s course of study. Through such capable categories as societal instruction, chemical science and music, the school is supplying students with the cognition, consciousness and accomplishments to confront the usual ‘citizenship issues’ that occurred within it and the wider community. However, if the students are traveling to be led into become active citizens, more attempt demands to be made to do them cognizant of precisely what citizenship is and more significantly, why it is being taught to them.
2. Drumhead
In September 2002 citizenship instruction was introduced through a Citizenship order to the National Curriculum in England. The order emphasised that “learning should guarantee that cognition and understanding about being informed citizens are required and applied when developing accomplishments of question and communicating, and engagement and responsible action.” ( Arthur and Wright, 2001:11 )
Rather than present citizenship instruction as a defined topic into its National Curriculum, Scotland has opted to do its results, cognition and apprehension ; accomplishments and competencies ; values and temperaments ; and creativeness and endeavor, an built-in portion of each topic taught. Thus citizenship accomplishments are integrated across the whole school.
In the Scottish Executive’s 2004 paper, A Curriculum for Excellence – the Curriculum Review Group, schools and instructors are asked to bring forth a course of study that will cook the young person of today for maturity, which will “be less crowded” and will ”offer more pick and enjoyment.”
“Our aspiration is to enable all kids to develop their capacities as successful scholars, confident persons, responsible citizens and effectual subscribers to society” . ( Scots Executive, 2004:6 ) .
The intent of this undertaking is to look into the execution of citizenship instruction in Scots schools at this minute. For this probe I used qualitative research ; this involved questioning members of staff at all degrees and interceding a pupil’s focal point group,
The consequence of my undertaking implies that, whilst the consecutive authoritiess and educational constitutions gain the importance of citizenship instruction in giving“pupils the cognition, accomplishments and understanding to play an effectual function in society atlocal, national and international degrees” , ( QCA, 1999 cited by Kerr, 2006: p5 ) most of the students who took portion in the focal point group had no cognition of the term citizenship or the constructs behind it and because of that they failed to recognize its elements within the schools course of study. The students besides showed that their cognition of political relations or democracy was unhappily missing.
However when the assorted countries of citizenship were discussed with the students, they realised that they did recognize them and were actively involved in utilizing them. This suggests that, although the term citizenship has little or no conceptual significance to the students, they are deriving practical experience of it through topics in the schools course of study every bit good as through the school as a whole.
3. Statement of intents or aims
In its paper; A Curriculum for Excellence – The Curriculum Review Group, the Scottish Executive provinces:
“Our aspiration for all kids and for every immature individual is that they should besuccessful scholars,confident persons,responsible citizensandeffectual subscriberstosociety and at work. By supplying construction, support and way to immature people’s acquisition,the course of study should enable them to develop these four capacities. The course of study should complement the of import parts of households and communities” . ( 2004:12 )
Through the Curriculum for Excellence, the Scottish Executive suggests four capacities of instruction that will be the footing of Scots instruction. These are: Successful scholars, confident persons, responsible citizens and effectual subscribers.
Since it is the duty of the whole school to develop the four capacities in all their students, the thrust toward constructing responsible citizens should non come on in isolation instead is should be presented across the whole course of study. “Activities such as endeavor, citizenship, sustainable development, wellness and creativeness, which are frequently seen as additions, can be built into the course of study framework” .( Scots Executive, 2006:8 ) .
Because of these alterations instructors will necessitate to believe about the course of study and how they present it in a different manner. Reflection will be indispensable for their personal development. Teachers will no longer be able to be insular in their ain topic, for every bit good as retrieving to implement the four capacities in their ain topic, they must besides be cognizant of showing them across the school as a whole.
Since the Curriculum for Excellence has still to be introduced, the chief intent of this undertaking is to look into how citizenship being presented and implemented in Scots schools at this minute. In order to turn to this inquiry, it was indispensable for me to besides look into the undermentioned sub inquiries:

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How the school presented citizenship?

Did all topics in the schools curriculum do a part to citizenship?

Were its students aware of the term “citizenship” and did they understand the construct behind it?

Was citizenship promoted across the school as a whole?

In making this undertaking the writer hopes that it will help him in the execution of citizenship instruction in his ain capable therefore bettering his ain instruction pattern.
4. Literature Reappraisal
The inquiry of “what is citizenship? ” is really hard to specify ; David Kerr argues that it “ …is a contested construct. At the bosom of the competition are differing positions about the map and administration of society.”( Kerr, 2006:6 ) . Kerr’s definition of citizenship instruction is to“ … encompass the readying of immature people for their functions and duties as citizens.”( Kerr, 2006:7 ) . Audrey Osler and Hugh Starkey province that“Citizenship is a site of political struggle.”( Osler and Starkey, 2005:11 ) . They go on to specify it as “holding two indispensable facets, foremost a position and a set of responsibilities and secondly a practise and an entitlement to rights”( Osler and Starkey, 2006:6 ) . Olser and Starkey besides argue that“ … citizenship is likely instantly experienced as a feeling of belonging.”( Osler and Starkey, 2006:6 ) . An account in a Scots Executive paper offers the account that“Everyone belongs to assorted types of community, both communities of topographic point, from local to planetary, and communities of involvement, rooted in a common concern or purpose.”( Scots Executive 2000:8 ) Concluding that“Citizenship involves basking rights and exerting duties in these assorted types of communities”( Scots Executive 2000:8 ) . Harmonizing to the Citizenship Foundation,“It[ citizenship ]refers non merely to rights and duties laid down in the jurisprudence, but besides to general signifiers of behavior – societal and moral – which societies expect of their citizens.”( The Citizenship Foundation 2006:2 ) .
These different definitions do look to place a common subject of citizenship, viz. that, in order to be a viewed as a full member of their community, people need to actively exert their rights and duties in three countries ; civil, societal and political. ( Marshall, 1964 cited by Kennedy, 1997:67 ) .
Historically the roots of citizenship can be found in Sparta, antediluvian Greece where “civilian responsibility scrupulously performed was besides expected of the good citizen. This would affect virtuous obeisance to the Torahs and engagement in the Assembly”( Heater, 2004:11 ) . This earliest signifier of citizenship, which was besides a characteristic of ancient Rome, may befar removed from the construct of it as we understand it today but it did signal a definite motion off from the old bossy signifier of regulating.
Throughout the ages citizenship continued to develop and hold found look in many diverse societies and civilizations as far apart as post-revolutionary France and post-independence USA – where it was enshrined in the fundamental law and served as the accelerator for social alteration – to the European Union of today where the proposed individual fundamental law is to a great extent predicated on the thought of a ‘European citizen’ as a mechanism to startle the assorted disparate civilizations.
Before Citizenship was debut into the course of study in England in 2002 as a discreet topic, it had been antecedently recommended for inclusion twice earlier. Both times saw Britain in crises of war. In 1918, at the terminal of World War 1, thePrimer of English Citizenshipwas published by Frederick Swann“ … to back the moral character of the British Citizen.”( Brandom, 2007:269 ) . The Association for Education in World Citizenship, ( AEWC ) , was setup in 1935 to,“preserve the democratic cloth of society in response to the rise of totalitarianism” .( Brandom, 2007:269 ) . Despite the AEWC’s construct of citizenship being adhered to in schools in the post-war old ages, there was no official add-on of citizenship as a topic into the course of study.
Harmonizing to Anne-Marie Brandom, citizenship was given “some signifier legislative recognition”( 2007:270 ) in the 1988Education Reform Actbut the course of study time-table was so overcrowded that it failed to be implemented.
Recommendations were besides made in a 1990 study,Encouraging Citizenship, as to ways of “easing societal citizenship through schools, voluntary attempts and public services” ( Arthur and Wright, 2001:7 ) but once more there was thin application of it.
In the latter portion of the 1990’s politicians were concerned with the gradual diminution of British civilization and society. This impairment was peculiarly prevailing amongst the states young person and because of it, there was a noticeable addition in anti-social behavior, hooky and high school exclusions. To counter this, an consultative group chaired by Professor Bernard Crick was formed to“establish the purposes and maps of citizenship ion schools”. ( Brandom, 2007:271 ) The Crick study, ( as it became know ) , categorised citizenship in three lines: “understanding societal and moral duty ; going involved in the community ; developing political literacy” .( Brandom, 2007:271 ) The Crick study to a great extent relied on the antecedently mentioned Marshall definition of the three elements that make up citizenship ; the civil, the societal and the political. These elements were underpinned by the thought of thekid as a hereafter citizen. ( Brandom, 2007:272 )
One of the recommendations from the Crick study was that citizenship instruction should be given 5 % of course of study clip. That and other recommendations helped organize the demands for citizenship instruction in the Revised National Curriculum 2000.
The Revised National Curriculum 2000 incorporates three strands:understanding societal and moral duty ; going involved in the community ; and developing political literacy” ( QCA/DfEE, 1999:6 cited in ( Brandom, 2007:272 ) . As a consequence of these three strands, students are to:become informed citizens ; develop accomplishments of question and communicating ; develop accomplishments of engagement and responsible action.”( QCA/DfEE, 1999:6 cited in ( Brandom, 2007:272 )
Unlike most England, most of Europe, North America and Australia, citizenship has non of all time been officially introduced into the Scots schools course of study.
In the 2000 audience paper Education for Citizenship in Scotland stated that citizenship instruction in Scots schools would“not affect the creative activity of a new capable ‘citizenship education’ – or the version of any individual bing country of the curriculum” .( Scots Executive 2000:16 ) Alternatively it would be done through“combinations of larning experiences set in the day-to-day life of the school, distinct countries of the course of study, cross-curricular experiences and activities affecting links with the local community.”( Scots Executive 2000:16 )
The documents rank of the reappraisal group was chaired by Professor Pamela Munn of Edinburgh University who supported the sentiment of a whole-school attack to citizenship instruction, noticing that:
“To look to turn up ‘citizenship education’ in one peculiar post-14 class of survey would look to be inconsistent with the wide position of instruction for citizenship being advanced in this paper.”( Scots Executive 2000 cited in Arthur and Wright, 2003:16 )
The reappraisal group concluded that citizenship instruction in Scotland is“integral to the instruction of pupils and dwelling in the whole course of study and ethos of the school.”( Arthur and Wright, 2003:16 ) .
The shortly to be introduced course of study for excellence portions the same positions of the non-introduction of citizenship instruction as a discreet topic. In the 2004 course of study reappraisal group paper ‘a course of study for excellence’ , citizenship instruction is still presented as being a whole-school attack but it besides encompasses the household and the community:
“They should be successful scholars, confident persons, responsible citizens and effectual subscribers to society and at work. By supplying construction, support and way to immature people’s acquisition, the course of study should enable them to develop these four capacities. The course of study should complement the of import parts of households and communities”( Scots Executive 2004:12 )
In 2006 ‘a course of study for excellence’ advancement and proposal was published. This paper was follow up to the 2004 course of study reappraisal group paper antecedently discussed. Again the whole-school attack is advocated, this clip with outside support fromother administrations, doing citizenship instruction wholly active non merely across the whole school or local community but globally.
“The whole school has duty for developing the four capacities in every kid and immature individual. This has deductions for the parts of each grownup who supports kids and immature people, and for whole-school policies, planning and partnerships with other organisations.”( Scots Executive 2006:8 )
5. Results
The focal point of this undertaking was to look at how citizenship was both presented and implemented within my 2nd placement school. I farther investigated its execution within my ain topics section and besides looked for grounds of cross-curricular activities. For the intents of researching this undertaking, I conducted staff interviews and mediated a pupil’s focal point group. This allowed me look into which elements of citizenship were included by the staff whilst learning their ain topic. It besides provided me with every bit pot as to the extent of the staff and students cognition and apprehension of citizenship.
In looking at learning citizenship within my ain topic I designed four lessons on universe music. This gave my category and I the chance to analyze other civilizations and their music. The stuffs produced which were specific to the civilizations we were look intoing ; Brazil, Cuba, Indonesia and Ghana. Through the lessons the category were able to ; discourse the background to the music and how the music made them experience, develop their practical accomplishments by playing the music both separately and as a group and larn how to listen efficaciously. ( To most pupils music is a background noise ; they ‘hear’ music in a lift, in a shopping Centre and on their MP3 participants as they study. ) Teaching music and citizenship in this ‘active’ manner allowed me much range for personal contemplation, inquiring myself ; what went good, what needed to be improved and what would make otherwise following clip? This in bend helped with my ain personal development non merely as a music instructor but as a ‘whole’ instructor.
6. Methods
In researching this undertaking I decided to utilize a assortment of different methods. My chief grounds for this was that in my old research undertaking I used observation as the chief line of my probe and I felt that if I used a assortment of research methods this clip I could anticipate better responses from both staff and students likewise.
6.1 Staff interviews
Through the schools trustee, meetings were arranged with members of staff who were willing to notice on how citizenship has been implemented in their section in the school. The staff members I met up with were: the Citizenship Co-ordinator, the Head of the Department for Science, the Head of the Department for Social Education and a instructor from the music section.
A meeting of 15 to twenty proceedingss with each of the above staff members was arranged. I had prepared and circulated a figure of cardinal inquiries in progress of the meetings. ( Appendix 1 ) . The inquiries focused on how citizenship is delivered in both their section and through the school as a whole. I asked each member of staff for permission to tape the interviews I conducted and all agreed. This enabled me to look into the inside informations I had written down against the recordings, therefore guaranting that my analysis was accurate and presented a true contemplation of their positions.
what are the Advantages/disadvantages?
The interviews with the staff members proved to be really successful, with all my purposes and aims being met. At the terminal of each interview they besides agreed to do themselves available by electronic mail to clear up any issues that might hold arisen whilst I was composing up the research.
6.2 Pupil’s focal point group
With the schools permission, a focal point group dwelling of a cross subdivision of S1 to S6 students was arranged to take topographic point one lunch period. A sheet incorporating the chief subject headers of the treatment was given to the students taking portion in order to give them clip to fix for it. ( Appendix 2 ) .
My undertaking as the go-between of the group was to maintain the treatment unfastened ended whilst maintaining it on the subject. To assist maintain them farther on topic and aid direct their thought I wrote the capable headers of the subjects to be discussed on the room’s whiteboard. A high degree of pupil interaction ensued, from which the information for this study emerged.
This method of garnering informations from the students has it advantages and disadvantages. The advantages being that it allows for a non-threatening attack therefore ensuing in an unfastened uninhibited treatment. The usage of this method besides gave the students a manner to discourse and if need be, dispute each other’s positions in a safe, friendly, non-threatening environment.
The Disadvantage of carry oning the focal point group was that a few of the stronger personalities began to act upon and take over group treatment thereby doing it hard for the quieter pupils to aerate their positions. Because of this I often asked the group if everyone agreed with a remark made or asked if that was what everyone idea. I besides called on a twosome of students by name to detect their sentiments on remarks made.
I once more asked and received permission from the school and the students to enter the focal point group treatment ; this allowed me to intercede the group without holding to rapidly compose down what was being said. In making this I was able to accurately summarize the content of the treatment at a ulterior clip.
Twelve students, two from each twelvemonth, attended the focal point group and their parts to it will be analysed in the undermentioned chapter.
7. Analysis
From the beginning it needs to be recognised that with merely four staff members interviewed and one pupils’ focal point group conducted, the findings presented in this professional undertaking can merely be regarded as being preliminary, nevertheless, my research did bring out a figure of interesting findings refering the execution of citizenship within the school. The balance of this subdivision will analyze the positions and sentiments made during both the interviews with the staff members and the pupil’s focal point group. Because merely four staff members were interviewed, their positions are presented individually, therefore leting for a more elaborate geographic expedition of them.
7.1 Staff interviews
Meeting One: Coordinator of Citizenship
This staff member was honest in explained to me that he was new to the school and that although portion of his responsibilities included being the Coordinator of Citizenship he was still seeking to familiarize himself with the duties and responsibilities refering it. He is at the minute set abouting an audit on Citizenship within the school in which he was looking at ; where the school is at with it, what repeat between the sections there is and what the school demand to make more away. He knew from meetings he had attended within the school that all sections had Citizenship listed as something they were to look at in their betterment programs but until he knew the consequence of his audit he wouldn’t cognize if or how it had been implemented.
He told met the school was seeking to incorporate Citizenship instead than hold it viewed as a “bolt on’ . Assorted schemes had been introduced this school twelvemonth such as junior and senior pupil councils, both of which had a budget, the re-establishment of houses and house captains and the execution of activity yearss such as “succeed and enterprise” through-out the twelvemonth.
Meeting Two: Head of Department for Science
This member of staff expressed that she was worried when she agreed to be interviewed that her section would be found to be missing in incorporating the elements of citizenship instruction into their instruction, nevertheless, the audit she did on her section proved these fright to be baseless.
Knowledge and Understanding are promoted in Science utilizing subjects such as ; eco chemical science, genetic sciences and atomic chemical science. In eco chemical science the students study the environment, the effects of pollution on it and planetary heating. Geneticss trades with the ethical issues of familial technology. Nuclear chemical science looks at atomic power and what options are available.
Skills and Aptitude: it was explained to me that the school ran their Higher course of study over two old ages, therefore gave the section clip to include developing the students accomplishments of presenting, treatment and debating.
Through group work where the students are encouraged to believe critically about the subjects covered and the experiments they are asked to execute. They are encouraged to larn and happen out through research, analysis and geographic expedition after which their consequences are presented to the remainder of the groups/teams where they are argued, discussed and debated. An illustration of this is the genetic sciences unit in which familial technology and trial tubing babes are discussed. Informed statements are given for and against, the students are encouraged to gain that there is no right or wrong here merely their sentiment.
Valuess: the scientific discipline section has a set of regulations for regard ; students are encouraged to esteem themselves and their equals and instructors. They are taught to esteem the schoolroom and the equipment within it. They are besides taught to value the sentiment of others, as all points of position are valid. Respect for the wider community, the environment and the planet are amongst other values taught.
Meeting Three: Head of Department for Social Education
This member of staff was really experient in showing and presenting the societal instruction programme, he demonstrated an obvious apprehension of how citizenship should be integrated in the course of study and across the school as a whole.
Knowledge and Understanding: Social Education is timetabled for an hr a hebdomad for 1st to 4th twelvemonth students and for two hours a hebdomad for 5th and 6th. Within Social Education cognition and apprehension are promoted utilizing such subjects as ; money and the universe of banking, sex instruction, right and duties, equal chances, personal development, callings education, societal development, where the school sits within East Lothian, within Scotland and the universe as a whole, drugs and intoxicant instruction and maintaining safe. Within the rights and duties unit students are taught the schools anti-bulling policy, any major bulling incidents result in the issue of a rights and bulling contract, this has resulted in a 95 % success rate of them being resolved in school.
Skills and Aptitudes: promoting and developing accomplishments in students to get by with a altering multi-cultural universe, being taught regard for others and acceptance through a partnership with themselves, the school, their parents and the constabulary, that their school is a contemplation of society – what they learn in school can model and determine society, communicating and group work/ teamwork, organic structure linguistic communication and get bying accomplishments for both the schoolroom and society – accomplishments and schemes are provided to assist the students cope within their equal group and besides assist them to avoid being coerced into sex, taking drugs or imbibing intoxicant, critical thought – students are encouraged to gain that during arguments there are no right or incorrect replies, they are given relevant information so that they can do an informed pick, they are taught to believe, brace and portion – students are asked to believe of their ain sentiment on a topic, brace up with a spouse and discourse it, take portion in a group treatment, feed back to the category therefore advancing effectual part and critical thought.
Valuess: within the Social Education lessons students are expected to esteem themselves, their equals and their instructors. They are taught to esteem the schoolroom and to make a safe environment for everyone within it. Through their partnership with the constabulary, the school and their parents they are taught to esteem the jurisprudence, democracy and justness. They are taught to stand up for themselves and support their ain point of position.
Meeting Four: Music Teacher
This member of staff was new to the section and radius of her experience both in that and her old school. Disappointingly, she expressed uncertainties as to why universe music should be taught as portion of the course of study.
Knowledge and Understanding are promoted in music through utilizing such subjects as universe music. In universe music the students study music from Cuba, Brazil, Ghana, India and Indonesia, larning about their civilization, the instruments they use and the differences between their music and music from the West. Students are besides taught non to blow the planets resources by exchanging off electrical equipment when it is non in usage.
Skills and Aptitude: a big portion of developing accomplishments and aptitudes in music is done through the engagement in different events with in the community. The music section has taken students to entertain the senior citizens at Christmas clip, had pupils participate in the Rotary club’s immature instrumentalist of the twelvemonth competition and has been invited to sing/perform at the gap of a new primary school and lodging association. Students are encouraged to fall in the assorted orchestras and bands that the school runs therefore giving them the chance to work in groups and construct squad work. Opinions can besides be communicated through vocal authorship.
Valuess: students are taught to esteem themselves, their equals and both the schoolroom and instrumental instructors. The section besides teach students to esteem all genres of music and to hold regard for the schoolroom and the equipment within it.
7.2 Pupils focal point group
As was outlined before in this undertaking, a focal point group session was carried out in order to find the pupils’ cognition and apprehension of citizenship and how it was taught to them both officially and informally. At the on-set of the session the significance of citizenship was briefly discussed with the group, after which there was a directed treatment on six different issues refering it. The treatment produced the undermentioned consequences:
Issue One: Citizenship in the school
The students highlighted a figure of activities that they though had helped them to develop both personally and socially. These included engagement in school trips to Germany and Switzerland, cultural visits such as a visit to the Royal Scottish Museum and a community committednesss plan, which involved picking up litter, endeavor, presentations and school shows.
Issue Two: Social & A ; Moral issues
The Pupils discussed their engagement in implementing the schools’ anti-bullying enterprises which ab initio had started as a 5th twelvemonth community undertaking. They felt that racism was non a job in the school. The students put frontward one point of grudge of non being allowed to run any fund elevation activities in the school. They felt they would wish the chance to raise money for worthy causes.
Issue Three: Rights & A ; duties
The students felt they had a voice in the school through both the junior and senior pupils’ councils. Their representatives were democratically elected and attended regular meetings of the councils provided a vehicle where pupil’s issues could be raised. Students are besides put into houses, which have house captains. The houses are awarded points for good behavior, attending, competition wins etc.
Issue Four: The school & A ; wider community
There was much grounds of an engagement in the wider community. As portion of the antecedently mentioned community committednesss plan some students had sang at the gap of a new primary school and had read poesy read poetry the occupants of an old people place.
Issue Five: Politics & A ; Democracy
There was small grounds of any cognition of political relations or democracy apart from the students who had or were analyzing Modern Studies.
Issue Six: The environment
Students noted that, the school runs an Eco Club in which both instructors and students discuss manner of salvaging the environment, ( local, national and universe ) . They felt that more recycling could be done within the school. There was merely one recycling bin and that was in the teachers’ auto park. The group had asked for money to supply sections with their ain recycling bin but their petition was denied.
8. Decisions
In roll uping the grounds from students and staff and through observation of the bringing of citizenship at whole school degree, it is clear that the range of citizenship is far-reaching. Areas such as rights and duties, political relations and democracy, community public assistance, informed decision-making, regard for others and a scope of participatory activities, provided a rich beginning of grounds.
The student focal point groups and teacher interviews revealed clear grounds that elements of the above subjects were covered through the bringing of distinct capable content. In peculiar, the content of Modern Studies included a more comprehensive survey of political establishments and political democratic procedures more finitely than any other curricular country. However, curricular topics such as English and History provided subjects which examined rights and duties and political relations and democracy through the survey of war and the moral issues involved. The survey of Geography and the distinct scientific disciplines besides provided survey of the environment.
Religious and Moral Education explored societal and moral issues and encouraged thoughtful and responsible action and an grasp of developing states, analyzing poorness, dearth and drouth. Home Economics developed pupil cognition and apprehension of dietetic issues, healthy feeding and the importance of hygiene. Physical Education encouraged healthy life styles and the grasp of the construct of ‘healthy head, healthy body’ .
Subjects included in the Business Education and Information Technology section, for illustration, Business Administration developed an grasp in students of money direction and endeavor and, besides, allowed students to reflect on the impact of engineering on day-to-day lives. Modern Languages developed consciousness of the importance of different civilizations and the installation to go abroad enhanced the development of foreign linguistic communication accomplishments and the grasp of foreign civilizations at first manus. Art and Design allowed pupils the chance to develop originative ability and provided an alternate agencies of look.
However, although the above curricular topics delivered facets of citizenship through pervasion, the Personal and Social Development ( PSD ) programme allocated dedicated clip to many facets of citizenship, including rights and duties, for illustration, in relation to smoke, intoxicant, sexual issues and moral quandary. Furthermore, this topic provided the chance for unfastened treatment, promoting students to be tolerant of dissension and minority positions and to heighten their decision-making accomplishments through working with others.
In add-on, the project of work experience arrangements promoted a direct nexus to the universe of work. This was further enhanced by the installation of mock interviews for students by representatives of the concern community prior to go forthing school. The aid of Careers Scotland besides impacted on pupils’ attitudes to go forthing school.
My observations of citizenship at whole-school degree revealed citizenship in action to which the students involved seemed wholly committed. Activities observed included Education Action where representatives from developing states addressed whole-school assemblies. This was a consequence of a instructor at the school holding visited Uganda, which led to pupils going actively involved in fund-raising for Uganda. The assembly provided the chance for students to manus over a check as a consequence of their fundraising activities.
A farther assembly demonstrated S4 students giving whole-school presentations on their work experience, leting them to develop their personal qualities and accomplishments and to do a utile part to their fellow students. The student council, to which category representatives were elected, besides provided the chance for students to take part and lend to the wider life of the school. Unfortunately, nevertheless, I was unable to detect meetings during my arrangement as these were postponed owing to preliminary scrutinies.
Other whole-school activities included Young Enterprise, pupil engagement in assorted competitions, debating and Duke of Edinburgh Award, all designed to develop the accomplishments included in the development of citizenship.
In decision, it is my position that students frequently did non appreciate when citizenship was being delivered. It was merely through treatment at focal point groups that they came to gain to the full what citizenship entailed. This possibly suggests that, in Scots instruction, citizenship is frequently inexplicit in its bringing through distinct curricular countries. As indicated earlier, PSD is much more expressed, in both content and bringing, yet pupil perceptual experience of this topic is possibly non every bit high as other topics, which are assessed at national degree.
However, my overarching decision is that pupil engagement in citizenship was at its strongest through active engagement by students. When allocated a distinguishable undertaking or, so, when this undertaking was suggested by a student, and when given duty to see the undertaking through to a successful decision, students responded with motive, finding and enthusiasm. Such activities involved students in informed decision-making, demoing regard for others, being responsible and developing personal accomplishments and qualities. From my observations, nevertheless, I would reason that the greatest nothingness is the absence of developing political literacy in students. Unless pupils survey Modern Studies, and numerically really few bashs, so I fear many students will go forth school politically illiterate to a greater or lesser extent. This, I would propose, is an insufficiency in Scots instruction, which needs to be addressed.
9. Deductions and Recommendations
This undertaking has investigated the presentation and execution of citizenship in Scots schools. The research gathered whilst analyzing citizenship in both the topic course of study and the school as a whole would look to back up the thought that citizenship is taught more successfully when it is spread through out the whole course of study instead than being presented as a discreet topic. Although most students did non cognize the term ‘citizenship’ , they gained practical experience of the elements of it through the schools capable course of study and through the school as a whole.
The school course of study is already overcrowded ; a audience paper calledEducation for Citizenship in Scotlandconcluded on the challenges of capable pick in Scots schools that, “the response to this state of affairs should non be to qualify any individual class of survey of ‘citizenship education’ as portion of each pupils core programme.( Scots Executive, 2000: p26 ) .
In reasoning this undertaking there are three recommendations its writer would do to assist take citizenship instruction frontward in Scots instruction:

Students need to be actively involved in citizenship instruction, taking portion in arguments, treatments, enterprises and undertakings.

Rather than go forth political relations and democracy to modern surveies, ( which after 2nd twelvemonth becomes an optional topic ) , some survey of them needs to be included someplace else in the course of study. Not to make so, will bring forth students who are politically uninformed.

Rather than do citizenship instruction a discreet capable, as it is in England, Scotland should go on implementing it as portion of the ethos of the school and portion of the course of study as a whole.

Andrews, G. ( 1991 ) , Citizenship. Lawrence and Wishart Limited, London. pp. 21 – 26.
Arthur, J. and Wright, D. ( 2001 ) . Teaching Citizenship in the Secondary School. David Fulton Publishers Ltd London. pp. 5 – 16.
Cogan, J.J. and Derricott, R. ( 1998 ) . Citizenship for the twenty-first Century: An International Perspective on Education. Kogan Page Limited, London. pp. 2 – 4.
Kennedy, K.J. ( 1997 ) . Citizenship Education and the Modern State. Falmer Press, London. pp. 67 – 69.
Scots Executive Education Department Report. ( 2001 ) . Education for Citizenship in Scotland: A Paper for Discussion and Development.
Scots Executive. ( 2000 ) . National Priorities in School Education. [ on-line ] . Crown Copyright, Scottish Statutory Instrument No 443. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //, ( p. 1 ) .

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