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Four levels of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio—can be used with variables. The nominal level of measurement is used with variables that can be classified arbitrarily by numbers and words. For example, color is a nominal variable because numbers can be assigned to represent it (e.g., green = 1; red = 2). The ordinal level of measurement is used with variables that can be rank-ordered. An example of an ordinal variable is attitudes about the effectiveness of specific police practices in reducing crime. This particular variable requires the use of a Likert scale, in which the participants are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, are neutral, or disagree with a statement about the effectiveness of specific police practices. Based on the results of the Likert scale, the police practices could be rank-ordered according to their effectiveness.
 
The interval level of measurement is used with variables that have meaningful values attached to them with an equal distance between the values. Interval variables, however, do not have a true zero point. The most widely used example of an interval variable is Fahrenheit temperature, where the value of zero has no intrinsic meaning.
 
The last level of measurement is ratio—it has the same properties as the interval level of measurement but has a true zero point. Ratio variables are those that can be counted, such as the number of homicides in a year or the number of felony convictions.
 
One of the most important steps in data analysis and research is applying the correct level of measurement to each variable. Levels of measurement determine the types of statistics that should be used for analysis. If the level of measurement for a variable is incorrectly identified, the statistics will be skewed. In this Discussion, you explore levels of measurement.
Choose two variables that are pertinent to your interests. Consider the level of measurement that applies to each variable. Be sure that the two variables you selected require two different levels of measurement.    
· List the four levels of measurement.
Provide an example of each of the four levels of measurement using the criminal justice research topic 
Juvenile Life Without Parole
·  
· Determine whether there are variables in this relationship that could be analyzed at more than one level of measurement. Explain why.
Bachman, R. D., & Schutt, R. K. (2019). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
· Chapter 4, “Conceptualization and Measurement” (pp. 86–116)
The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7th Edition by Bachman, R. D. & Schutt, R. K. Copyright 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Bachman, R. D., & Schutt, R. K. (2019). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
· Chapter 14, “Analyzing Quantitative Data” (pp. 404–415 and 426–444)
The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7th Edition by Bachman, R. D. & Schutt, R. K. Copyright 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Levels of measurement. In Research methods knowledge base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php
Walden University: Academic Skill Center. (n.d.). ASC software assistance: Microsoft Excel. Retrieved March 15, 2019, from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASCsoftware/msoffice/excel
Microsoft Office Online. (n.d.). Excel help center. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from https://support.office.com/en-us/excel
Navigate to the tables and charts section of this page to access the applicably level of training you may need for creating charts and graphs in Excel.

Lynda.com. (2019). Excel: Introduction to charts and graphs. Retrieved from https://www.lynda.com/Excel-tutorials/Excel-Introduction-Charts-Graphs/802837-2.html
Lynda.com. (2018). Excel 2019 essential training. Retrieved from https://www.lynda.com/Excel-tutorials/Excel-2019-Essential-Training/728368-2.html
Lynda.com. (2016). Excel 2016 essential training with Dennis Taylor. Retrieved from https://www.lynda.com/Excel-tutorials/Excel-2016-Essential-Training/376985-2.html

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