ONCEPT OF CONTAINERIZATION The conteainerization is a physical distribution method that uses a container as a way of tranporting the cargo. Is an inter-modal system of transporting the general cargo or product in lots. With containerization goods are moved easier from one place to another with the help of the containers which can be loaded intact onto the container ships, trucks, railroad cars and planes.?? Nowadays, containerization is the innovative key in the field of logistics that helps to organize cargo in an efficient, better and save way.
Benefits of containerization If you visit a port, you would notice that all shipping containers are very similar in form. The introduction of containerization has revolutionised the way cargo is handled. The standardization of container sizes, shapes, and forms lowered freight charges and costs. Containerization also improved cargo security. First, the box effectively hides whatever cargo from the casual viewer. Next, the container doors are sealed upon closing. The doors also prevent the cargo from falling out the back of the box.
Finally, uniformly sized shipping containers reduce railway cargo problems that are caused by incompatible rail measures in different countries, making trans-shipment between different measure trains faster and easier. When transporting goods to an international location, there are many container ships that run regular routes to a variety of destinations. This helps the customer to receive the order in less time. CONTAINERIZED CARGO LOSS CONTROL—CONTAINERIZED CARGO The use of intermodal containers for the transport of a great variety of cargo has become increasingly popular in recent years. Intermodalism is a oncept that embraces the movement and transfer of standardized cargo containers by sea, air and surface. It has greatly reduced cargo handling, particularly in Door-to-Door shipments.
The development of specialized containers with a wide range of types, sizes and configurations permits containerization of most cargo. Undamaged arrival of the complete shipment at destination is the first objective of the shipper. In committing goods to containerized transport, the shipper can reduce losses by: * Select the proper container service. * Selecting the right type of container for the goods in question. Inspecting the container to ensure proper accommodation and protection of goods. * Packaging goods to withstand the hazards of the “toughest leg of the journey. ” * Stowing and securing goods in the container to prevent damage to the goods, container ? and transport vehicle. * Properly describing and documenting the container contents, locking and sealing the ? container and recording container and seal numbers on all shipping documents. * Timely unloading at destination. Intermodal variations ?The popular intermodal container, adaptable to carriage by truck, railcar, and some other, is the most common form of containerization.
The considerations governing preparation and storage of the cargo in these containers are no longer applicable to other methods of cargo transport. Cargo Containers? 1. End Loading, Fully Enclosed— The basic intermodal container with end doors, suitable for general cargo not requiring environmental control while enroute. 2. Side Loading, Fully Enclosed— Equipped with side doors for use in stowing and discharge of cargo where it is not practical to use end doors, as when the container must remain on a railcar while cargo is placed in or removed from the container. 3.
Open Top—Used for carriage of heavy, bulky or awkward items where loading or discharge of the cargo through end or side doors is not practical. Most open top containers are equipped with fabric covers and are often termed “soft” or “rag” top containers. Some open top versions are fitted with removable hatch-type panel covers or detachable full metal roof. 4. Ventilated—Equipped with ventilating ports on ends or sides, and used for heat generating cargo or cargo requiring protection from condensation (sweat) damage. Versions with powered air-circulating fans are available.
Vents are normally fitted with baffles to prevent entry of sea or rain water. 5. Insulated—For cargo that should not be exposed to rapid or sudden temperature changes. Available in ventilated or non-ventilated versions. Some carriers provide containers with heating systems for special applications. 6. Refrigerated—Insulated and equipped with a built-in refrigeration sys-tem, powered by direct electrical connection or by diesel or gasoline generator. It is used primarily for foods or other commodities requiring a temperature con-trolled environment. 7. Liquid Bulk—Tank-type containers for carriage of liquids.
Some have been designed to high level specifications for carriage of certain hazardous materials. 8. Dry Bulk—Designed for carriage of bulk cargo such as dry chemicals and grains. 9. Flat Rack—Available in a variety of sizes and models, the flat racks are used for lumber, mill products, large, heavy, bulky items, machinery and vehicles. Some are equipped with removable sides. 10. Auto — Used for carriage of vehicles and available in enclosed or open versions.? 11. Livestock — Configured for the nature of livestock carried; containers are available for transporting poultry, cattle and other livestock.
Also, transport boxes can be loaded onto flats. 12. Controlled Atmosphere—-These systems carry a cylinder of liquid nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Through computer-based controls, the atmosphere within the container can be maintained at preset levels to meet requirements of commodity carried. Used mainly in the transport of produce to extend the post-harvest and storage life. 13. High Cube—These containers are used for high volume/low weight cargo and can greatly increase the cubic area available for cargo stowage. High cube containers are in heights to 9. 5 feet and to lengths of a maximum of 48 feet. 4. Garment—With special tie downs and internal ceiling fittings, this container can handle hanging garments. UNITIZED CARGO It a system used to transport goods that are packaged in small volumes, can be consolidated or grouped into a single large volume (container), making sure that those godos are not easily destroyed. At the same time, it facilitates the handling and loading cargo or unloading of it. Unitarization It is the aggrupation of shipment in the corresponding type of package that is over a pallet and secure from damages to manipulate transport and warehouse as a whole unit of load.
One of the first attempts of unitarizing the cargo is within the pallet, that is about placing the shipment over a platform, which is constructed with a variety of materials. Actually, pelleting and containerizing are the most common modalities of unitarizing the cargo. Unitarized cargo is composed of individual articles such as boxes, packages and other elements are originally separated and then grouped together as pallets or containers. In other words unitarization is the merchandise ready to be transported. There are some norms that have been developed to facilitate this process.
For example, one is the ISO 3394 that ha to do with the size and dimensions of the boxes and pallets. Another norm is ISO 7000 that has to do with the code bars in the merchandize. Unitarization in containers is very important because it helps to maintain and preserve the merchandise in good conditions, is easier to transport it and it helps to save space in all the process of storage. And, when unitarizing cargo, in international markets, is very important to be informed of the rules and techniques that are followed by the Country for doing packing.
Advantages of unitarization Optimization of time when manipulating the cargo in warehouses, cargo terminals, and in the unload of cargo in ports. It facilitates the reception and control in the delivery of merchandise. Well use of space and reduction of damages when the merchandise is handled. Simplifies the management of inventory and improves the identification of products. It provides multiple use in the process of production, goods transportation, international transportation, in the storage and warehousing.
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