Hardware Input and output devices constitute the hardware components of MIS. Software The programs and applications that convert data into machine-readable language are known as software. Procedures Procedures are sets of rules or guidelines, which an organization establishes for the use of a computer-based information system.
Personnel The computer experts, managers, users, analysts, programmers, database managers, and many other computer professionals who utilize the computer-based information systems are the personnel in a management information system.COMPONENTS OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USED IN LILAVATI HOSPITAL & RESEARCH SYSTEM 1) Marketing Research System (MRS) 2) Marketing Intelligence System (MIS) 3) Internal Reporting System (IRS) 4) Decision Support System (DSS) DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM Decision support systems (DSS) are a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSS’s serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance. DSS’s include knowledge-based systems.A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data, documents, personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present are: ? Inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts), ? Comparative sales figures between one period and the next, ? Projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions. ApplicationsAs mentioned above, there are theoretical possibilities of building such systems in any knowledge domain.
One example is the Clinical decision support system for medical diagnosis. Other examples include a bank loan officer verifying the credit of a loan applicant or an engineering firm that has bids on several projects and wants to know if they can be competitive with their costs. DSS is extensively used in business and management. Executive dashboard and other business performance software allow faster decision making, identification of negative trends, and better allocation of business resources.A growing area of DSS application, concepts, principles, and techniques is in agricultural production, marketing for sustainable development. For example, the DSSAT4 package, developed through financial support of USAID during the 80’s and 90’s, has allowed rapid assessment of several agricultural production systems around the world to facilitate decision-making at the farm and policy levels. There are, however, many constraints to the successful adoption on DSS in agriculture.
DSS are also prevalent in forest management where the long planning time frame demands specific requirements.All aspects of Forest management, from log transportation, harvest scheduling to sustainability and ecosystem protection have been addressed by modern DSSs. A comprehensive list and discussion of all available systems in forest management is being compiled under the COST action Forays’ A specific example concerns the Canadian National Railway system, which tests its equipment on a regular basis using a decision support system. A problem faced by any railroad is worn-out or defective rails, which can result in hundreds of derailments per year.Under a DSS, CN managed to decrease the incidence of derailments at the same time other companies were experiencing an increase. Clinical decision support system Clinical decision support systems (CDSS or CDS) are interactive computer programs, which are designed to assist physicians and other health professionals with decision making tasks. A working definition has been proposed by Dr.
Robert Hayward of the Centre for Health Evidence; “Clinical Decision Support systems link health observations with health knowledge to influence health choices by clinicians for improved health care”.This definition has the advantage of simplifying Clinical Decision Support to a functional concept. Basic definition of a CDSS in its simplest form is that it is a decision support system (DSS) that is used in the clinical setting. Often a Diagnostic Decision Support System DDSS is assumed to be equivalent to a CDSS and are thought to be interchangeable. However, in a clinical setting, making diagnoses based on clinical data is only a subset of the spectrum in which DSS can be used in a clinical setting. Purpose/Goal The main purpose of modern CDSS is to assist clinicians at the point of care.This means that a clinician would interact with a CDSS to help determine diagnosis, analysis, etc.
of patient data. Previous theories of CDSS were to use the CDSS to literally make decisions for the clinician. The clinician would input the information and wait for the CDSS to output the “right” choice and the clinician would simply act on that output. The new methodology of using CDSS to assist forces the clinician to interact with the CDSS utilizing both the clinician’s knowledge and the CDSS to make a better analysis of the patients data than either human or CDSS could make on their own.Typically the CDSS would make suggestions of outputs or a set of outputs for the clinician to look through and the clinician officially picks useful information and removes erroneous CDSS suggestions. An example of how a CDSS might be used by a clinician comes from the subset of CDSS, DDSS or Diagnosis Decision Support Systems. A DDSS would take the patients data and propose a set of appropriate diagnosis.
The doctor then takes the output of the DDSS and figures out which diagnoses are relevant and which are not. Another important classification of a CDSS is based on the timing of its use.The doctor uses these systems at point of care to help them as they are dealing with a patient, with the timing of use as either pre-diagnosis, during diagnoses, or post diagnoses. Pre-diagnoses CDSS systems are used to help the physician prepare the diagnoses. CDSS used during diagnoses help review and filter the physician’s preliminary diagnostic choices to improve their final results. And post-diagnoses CDSS systems are used to mine data to derive connections between patients and their past medical history and clinical research to predict future events. There are two main types of CDSS ?Knowledge-Based Non-Knowledge-Based Knowledge-Based CDSS Most CDSS consist of three parts, the knowledge base, inference engine, and mechanism to communicate.
The knowledge base contains the rules and associations of compiled data which most often take the form of IF-THEN rules. If this was a system for determining drug interactions, then a rule might be that IF drug X is taken AND drug Y is taken THEN alert user. Using another interface, an advanced user could edit the knowledge base to keep it up to date with new drugs. The inference engine combines the rules from the knowledge base with the patient’s data.The communication mechanism will allow the system to show the results to the user as well as have input into the system. Non-Knowledge-Based CDSS CDSS that do not use a knowledge base use a form of artificial intelligence called machine learning, which allow computers to learn from past experiences and/or find patterns in clinical data. Two types of non-knowledge-based systems are artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms.
Artificial neural networks use nodes and weighted connections between them to analyze the patterns found in the patient data to derive the ssociations between the symptoms and a diagnosis. This eliminates the need to write the rules and for expert input. However since the system cannot explain the reason it uses the data the way it does, most clinicians don’t use them for reliability and accountability reasons. Genetic Algorithms are based on simplified evolutionary processes using directed selection to achieve optimal CDSS results. The selection algorithms evaluate components of random sets of solutions to a problem. The solutions that come out on top are then recombined and mutated and run through the process again.This happens over and over till the proper solution is discovered.
They are the same as neural networks in that they derive their knowledge from patient data. Non-knowledge-based networks often focus on a narrow list of symptoms like ones for a single disease as opposed to the knowledge based approach which cover many different diseases to diagnosis. BENEFITS OF DSS 1. Improves personal efficiency 2. Expedites problem solving (speed up the progress of problems solving in an organization) 3. Facilitates interpersonal communication 4.Promotes learning or training 5.
Increases organizational control 6. Generates new evidence in support of a decision 7. Creates a competitive advantage over competition 8. Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker 9. Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space 10. Helps automate the managerial processes. MARKETING RESEARCH SYSTEM The general topic of marketing research has been the prime ‘ subject of the textbook and only a little more needs to be added here.
Marketing research is a proactive search for information.That is, the enterprise which commissions these studies does so to solve a perceived marketing problem. In many cases, data is collected in a purposeful way to address a well-defined problem (or a problem which can be defined and solved within the course of the study). The other form of marketing research centre’s not around a specific marketing problem but is an attempt to continuously monitor the marketing environment. These monitoring or tracking exercises are continuous marketing research studies, often involving panels of farmers, consumers or distributors from which the same data is collected at regular intervals.Whilst the ad hoc study and continuous marketing research differs in the orientation, yet they are both proactive. MARKETING INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM A marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and data sources used by marketing managers to sift information from the environment that they can use in their decision making.
This scanning of the economic and business environment can be undertaken in a variety of ways, including2 Unfocused scanning The manager, by virtue of what he/she reads, hears and watches exposes him/herself to information that may prove useful.Whilst the behavior is unfocused and the manager has no specific purpose in mind, it is not unintentional Semi-focused scanning Again, the manager is not in search of particular pieces of information that he/she is actively searching but does narrow the range of media that is scanned. For instance, the manager may focus more on economic and business publications, broadcasts etc. and pay less attention to political, scientific or technological media. Informal search This describes the situation where a fairly limited and unstructured attempt is made to obtain information for a specific purpose.For example, the marketing manager of a firm considering entering the business of importing frozen fish from a neighboring country may make informal inquiries as to prices and demand levels of frozen and fresh fish. There would be little structure to this search with the manager making inquiries with traders he/she happens to encounter as well as with other ad hoc contacts in ministries, international aid agencies, with trade associations, importers/exporters etc.
Formal search This is a purposeful search after information in some systematic way. The information will be required to address a specific issue.Whilst this sort of activity may seem to share the characteristics of marketing research it is carried out by the manager him/herself rather than a professional researcher. Moreover, the scope of the search is likely to be narrow in scope and far less intensive than marketing research Marketing intelligence is the province of entrepreneurs and senior managers within an agribusiness. It involves them in scanning newspaper trade magazines, business journals and reports, economic forecasts and other media. In addition it involves management in talking to producers, suppliers and customers, as well as to competitors.Nonetheless, it is a largely informal process of observing and conversing.
Some enterprises will approach marketing intelligence gathering in a more deliberate fashion and will train its sales force, after-sales personnel and district/area managers to take cognizance of competitors’ actions, customer complaints and requests and distributor problems. Enterprises with vision will also encourage intermediaries, such as collectors, retailers, traders and other middlemen to be proactive in conveying market intelligence back to them.INTERNAL REPORTING SYSTEM All enterprises which have been in operation for any period of time nave a wealth of information. However, this information often remains under-utilized because it is compartmentalized, either in the form of an individual entrepreneur or in the functional departments of larger businesses. That is, information is usually categorized according to its nature so that there are, for example, financial, production, manpower, marketing, stockholding and logistical data.Often the entrepreneur, or various personnel working in the functional departments holding these pieces of data, do not see how it could help decision makers in other functional areas. Similarly, decision makers can fail to appreciate how information from other functional areas might help them and therefore do not request it.
The internal records that are of immediate value to marketing decisions are: orders received, stockholdings and sales invoices. These are but a few of the internal records that can be used by marketing managers, but even this small set of records is capable of generating a great deal of information.Below, is a list of some of the information that can be derived from sales invoices. • Product type, size and pack type by territory • Product type, size and pack type by type of account • Product type, size and pack type by industry • Product type, size and pack type by customer • Average value and/or volume of sale by territory • Average value and/or volume of sale by type of account • Average value and/or volume of sale by industry • Average value and/or volume of sale by sales person By comparing orders received with invoices an enterprise can establish the extent to which it is providing an acceptable level of customer service.In the same way, comparing stockholding records with orders received helps an enterprise ascertain whether its stocks are in line with current demand patterns. LILAVATI HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTRE The Lilavati Hospital is the creation of the Lilavati Kirtilal Mehta Medical Trust. Formed in 1978, the Lilavati Kirtilal Mehta Medical Trust has engaged in charitable endeavors across India.
Members take personal initiative every year to distribute clothes and medicine to the poor in rural areas and have successfully set up medical clinics in many remote and ill-equipped hamlets of India.The Trust now broadens its sphere of activity by addressing one of the most fundamental rights of every human being: the right to live in good health. In a country where thousands die each day due to their inability to access an expensive health care system the Lilavati Kirtilal Mehta Trust seeks to advance the frontiers of specialized medical care and evaluate new techniques designed for a quality health care delivery system. The combination of research and education with outpatient and hospital care distinguishes the Lilavati Hospital as a concerned non-profit healthcare organization.The Hospital maintains a team of doctors, well trained in multi-disciplinary areas of medicine and surgery. Together the men and women of the hospital strive to make each day more comfortable and promising for the patients. The Lilavati Kirtilal Mehta Medical Trust is helping to spark a new confidence in India’s ability to deliver a humane and affordable health care system.
The Medical Centre will integrate outpatient and hospital care with research and education under a single roof, which will provide for greater efficiency in meeting the overall needs of a patient. SUB-SYSTEMS IN LILAVATI HOSPITAL & RESEARCH CENTREThe hospital has the following departments ?Cardiology ?Dermatology ?Endocrinology ?Gastroenterology ?Nephrology ?Neurology ?Oncology ?Pediatrics ?Psychiatry ?Respiratory ?Rheumatology WORKING OF VARIOUS SUB-SYSTEMS CARDIOLOGY The teams of Cardiologist, Cath Lab and non-invasive lab technicians have wide experience in the management of all complex cardiac problems. The latest techniques in the field of Pacing and Coronary angioplasties are being routinely perform at the Hospital. ENDROCRINOLOGY The Department of Dermatology provides full medical and surgical dermatologic service to patients.GASTROENTROLOGY The Department of Gastroenterology has diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopies. It also caters to Herpetology and Pancreatic disorders. NEPHROLOGY Nephrology is an essential science required in every major Super Specialty Hospital.
Nephrology as a subspecialty is a very important aspect of medicine required for the success of various other services like Critical Care Medicine, Cardiology, Cardiac Surgeries, Major General Surgeries and Orthopedic Surgery. It is an essential back up without which advanced Medical, Surgical and Critical Care is difficult to provide.NEUROLOGY The 21st Century promises new excitement on the frontier of brain development. It Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre are gearing up to absorb this excitement and have established a comprehensive Neurosciences Department. This will have services to cater to problems related to Neurological diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord too. ONCOLOGY Cancer is fast becoming the commonest disease-affecting mankind. Lilavati Hospital has rightly identified Oncology as one of the thrust areas for development.
PEDIATRICS The Lilavati Hospital has a thriving Pediatrics department.It is also a tertiary care Centre for complicated pediatrics cases. It has a number of Pediatric sub-specialties like Pediatric Cardiology. Pediatric Oncology. Pediatrics Hematology. Pediatrics Neurology. Paediatric Surgery.
Paediatric Nephrology. PSYCHIATRY Psychiatry has an important role to play. This area of functioning is known as Consultation Liaison Psychiatry. Here the psychiatrist acts as a consultant to medical and surgical units. Patient in these units may develop secondary problems such as delirium, post operative psychosis etc. patient may have co-existing psychiatric illness such as major psychosis, which may interfere with the planned management. Patients may also have personality traits or neurotic disorders that may make him non-compliant with the treatment or patients may develop secondary anxiety or depression in reaction to the medical illness, its treatment or unexpected complications.
In such conditions psychological treatment is necessary for proper and total patient care. RESPIRATORY Respiratory Medicine department provides comprehensive consultation, evaluation and treatment of the entire spectrum of respiratory disorders.Daily Services are provided for OPD-Patients and In-Patients. Clinical interest of physicians include Lung Infections, Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Occupational & Environmental Lung Disease, Pulmonary Vascular Diseases and Pulmonary Hypertension, Asthma and COPD, Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Sarcoidosis and Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis, Acute Respiratory and Chronic Respiratory Failure, Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Lung Cancers. RHEUMATOLOGY Rheumatology is a specialized branch of medicine, which deals with the medical treatment of Arthritis and various Collagen vascular diseases.Arthritis is a common problem faced in our country. Deformities and other complete disease-remission can be achieved if the patient comes at an early stage, so that deformities and other complete disease remission can be achieved if the patient comes at an early stage.
ASSIGNMENT-2 *SUBJECT* MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM NAME RAHMAT ZAHOOR ENROLMENTNO: 1187 SERVICES PROVIDED BY LILAVATI HOSPITAL AND RESEACH CENTRE •Arranging your treatment at Medical Centers that offer quality and personal treatment to International patients. Flexible and tailor made packages. •Organizing flights, visa and accommodation. •Arrangement of Medical Visa to India. •Coordinating treatment and correspondence on your behalf. •Liaising with the doctors who will be treating you. •A support line for your relatives and friends back home.
•Arranging recuperation holidays. •Access to state-of-the-art facilities and technologies. •Access to leading medical institutions and doctors. •Significant savings compared to private healthcare. •Avoid waiting times to be treated. •Excellent quality of service.
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