Briefly Discuss How Mutations To DNA Can Occur And What The Effects Mutations May Cause.

a. Briefly discuss how mutations to DNA can occur and what the effects mutations may cause.

A permanent change in the DNA sequence occurs. While this happens the mutations alters the amino acid sequence. The process is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene’s DNA sequence will alter the amino acid sequences of the protein which is encoded by the gene.

b. Are mutations “good,” “bad,” both or “neutral,” from a biological perspective? Explain your answer. Research your answer and provide internal citations and a reference page in proper APA format.

Mutation is very tricky. On one hand, mutation is necessary to introduce variation into the gene pool of a population. Genetic variation has been shown to correlate with species fitness. On the other hand, most mutations are deleterious to the individuals in which they occur. So mutation is good for the population, but generally not so good for the individual. Some mutations arise as natural errors in DNA replication. Mutations can also be caused by agents in the environment. Mutations can affect individuals in a variety of ways. Change in a morphological trait. Nutritional, biochemical variation. Change in behavior, changes in gene regulation, even lethality.

c. Compare and contrast the processes of replication and transcription (copy/pastes the table into your document).

PROCESSWHEN does it occur?WHERE in the cell does it occur?WHAT exactly is happening during the process?What NUCLEOTIDE BASES are involved?STARTS WITH? (DNA or mRNA)ENDS WITH? (DNA or mRNA)
DNA Replication      
Transcription      

d. Complete the table below reviewing the process of translation.

PROCESSWhat ORGANELLE is instrumental in the process?What NUCLEOTIDE BASES are involved?STARTS WITH (DNA or mRNA)?ENDS with?
Translation    
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