(1) Title of the Research Work: “A STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PLASMA AND LCD TV INDUSTRY AND IT’S IMPACT ON GENERAL CTV MARKET:- WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MUMBAI REGION” (2) Introduction: History and development of audiovisual medium: Perception is the frame of mind of a customer about a particular product or service which customer would like to avail. It is the way a customer look at anything. In short it is the process of perceiving about anything. Customer perception about any product or service is an important parameter in the whole marketing scenario and global economy as well.
It contributes to the social, cultural, environmental, political and economic growth of the nation. Post-war mass communication and media studies have had two periods of radical change, the late 1960s-early 1970s and the1980s, of which the former was characterized by the rise of Marxism and the latter by its decline. These transformations did not take place simultaneously in all countries, but as a generalization this seems to hold true. For instance, Frands Mortensen (1994) recalls the year 1977 as the turning point when critical vocabulary in his work began, for the time being at least, to fade out.
Mortensen’s fate was shared by many of the turn-of-the-seventies generation throughout Europe, the soixante-huitards or ’68ers’ as the French call them. As a result, some avoided radical thought altogether, denouncing their Marxist past; others changed to postmodernism, while a few still adhered to the Marxist project by trying to reshape it. However, they all had to keep abreast of the new 1980s generation– a generation more in tune with economies of deregulation, individualist policies and cultural anti-modernism.
The 20th century has witnessed at least three periods during which the nature and status of moving images have been at the centre of more or less comprehensive cultural-theoretical concerns: one in the 1920s with the stabilization of the feature film and film art; one in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of full-blown television; and one from the 1980s to the present with the transformation of television, combined with the introduction of video and computer- based media.
One of the underlying assumptions during this 70-year-debate boils down to the idea that if there is one thing that characterizes 20th-century culture, at least its latter half, then it is audiovisuality. It is this view that unites 1920s avant-gardists and cineaste-critics (e. g. Balazs 1982), 1950s and 1960s filmologists in France and Italy (e. g. Cohen-Seat 1961)who receded but were, unfortunately, overshadowed by Marshall McLuhan, and the 1980s postmodernists (e. . Kroker &Cook 1986). In the following discussion, I will, on the basis of this continuing debate, assume the centrality of image and sound media to our century. One of the key issues in audiovisual media theory, then, is concerned with accounting for this centrality of moving images in contemporary life. It is here, I argue, that the Frankfurt School may still prove helpful.
In what sense is the 20th century the “age of the image” (Gance 1927) as well as that of the society of spectacle, entertainment and interaction? Or, how are the increasing audiovisual and aesthetic components of 20th century civilization interconnected? To answer these questions, media theory has to account for four major empirical phenomena and historical periods (for another synoptically view of the audiovisual 20th century, cf.
Zielinski 1989): the birth and beginnings of film (The Age of Early Cinema, 1895-1915), the heyday of the standard feature film (The Age of the Classical Hollywood Film, 1920-1960), the replacement of cinema films by television as the major audiovisual medium (The Age of Paleo-television, 1960-1980) and the transformation of television in the new audiovisual landscape of, inter alia, video and multimedia (The Age of Neo-television, 1980-; the terms ‘paleo-’ and ‘neo-television’,coming from Umberto Eco, seem to have established themselves [cf. e. g. Casetti & Odin 1990]).
Because these are understandably highly complex and still insufficiently explored issues, let me just give a cursory idea of the explanatory potential of Critical media theory: I will elaborate on the argument that each change of period –from the early cinema to the Hollywood film, from the Hollywood film to paleo-television and from paleo- to neo-television –involves expansion and intensification of some aspects of the general aesthetisisation of the everyday world To simplify matters for this essay, I shall attribute one single explanatory aspect to each change.
First, what distinguishes the classical film of the Hollywood type from early cinema is the standardization of three major attributes: the length, type and screening time of the film. As a result, going to the movies means going to see a fiction film at a scheduled time. What this amounts to is to make film-viewing akin to attending more traditional spectacles such as theare, opera or ballet. In other words, it intensifies the spectacularity of films, for from now on moving images are to be received with more sustained concentration.
The symbol for this new relation is perhaps first of all the film star, who functions as the imagined object of identifications and projections inherent in one’s relation to the spectacle of films. Second, of the many differences between the cinema film and broadcast television, two are relevant in this context: moving images are privatized as they enter the home and their viewing becomes a daily pursuit. It is in this way that television, like the periodic press and broadcast radio before it, begins to bind the home incessantly to the outside world, which means a tremendous expansion of the interactive potential of moving images.
What is new in these image-relations is perhaps captured best by the recurring, wave-like nature of such television programmes as news, fiction series or sport events; it is their ability a community or an audience out of them that crystallises their interactiveness. Third, the change from paleo- to neo-television mainly implies Americanisation, i. e. , commercialization in a multi-channel context, and seems to concern predominantly the development of European television.
The struggle for maximising audiences forces channels to find ways both to attract viewers and to allure them to stay tuned. In this process, entertainment – fiction more probably than fact, exciting fact more probably than non-exciting – is likely to gain the upperhand. An application of Horkheimer and Adorno’s culture-industry theory to the Audiovisual 20th Century: the periods, the determinants of the changes of period and the corresponding paradigms crystallising the changes. 895-1915: The Age of Early Cinema : Spectacle: Film star : 1915-1960: The Age of the Classical Hollywood Film : Interaction: News, fiction series, sports event : 1960-1980: The Age of Paleo-television : Entertainment:TV commercial : 1980- : The Age of Neo-television Considering the commercial as the prototype of this trend, but it is such basic virtues of television commercials as non-seriousness (‘nothing really matters that much’) which in the Age of Neo-television tend to become universalised.
Granting the centrality of audiovisual media in the 20th century and the heuristic contribution reading Dialectic of Enlightenment may make to our understanding of it, what other reasons could be offered after the adverse 1980s conditions in defence of the re-actualisation of the Frankfurt School in media and mass communication studies? To conclude, let me pursue two further arguments. First, dissatisfaction with French theorizing has for some time now made room for alternative strains of critical thought; this dissolution of the structuralist and post-structuralist dynasty (cf.
Steinman1988 on its repercussions on US film and television studies) has benefitted, among others, American pragmatism (Rorty), Soviet semiotics (Bakhtin) and the Frankfurt School (Adorno). As a matter of fact, it has been argued (Hohendahl 1992) that since the 1980s Adorno has become more popular as a research subject than he ever was at the peak of the student movement. Second,if one is to believe the opinion of the majority to be gathered from a recent survey of the field (Levy & Gurevitch 1993), the mass communication research community, especially its US quarters, have been seized by a sense of disorientation.
The name of the malaise is marginalisation: media scholars feel as if they are out of touch with more established disciplines (what is more, this feeling is supported by prevailing citation patterns of the field; cf. So 1988). There is no panacea for the situation because the discipline is filled with contradictory pressures, but one could argue, like Graham Murdock (1991), that mass communication research should regain its contact with the general project of the human sciences, which is the historical study of modernity. It is especially here that the tradition of the Frankfurt School, as the ases of Jurgen Habermas and others exhibit, has not reached the end of its journey yet. It is in this sense that the intimate relationship between audiovisuality and what has been termed the “Short Twentieth Century” (Hobsbawm 1994) turns into one of the key avenues by which media studies can approach and contribute to the study of modernity and its contemporary vicissitudes. (3) Indian television industry The Indian Television industry is going through turbulent transformation. Companies are relooking at their strategies and are desperate for growth.
The entrenched position of the Indian market leaders in CTVs’ like Videocon, BPL and Onida has been challenged by the MNCs such as LG, AIWA, Akai, Panasonic, Samsung, Sony, Philips and Sharp; some in a perceptible way and others threatening to do so. The changing environment demands fresh thinking to gain the cutting edge advantage. This study attempts to look at the various customer perception oriented factors operating in the PLASMA and LCD television industry irrespective of the brand of the television Indian or Imported. (4) New developments in CTV industry:
An introduction of PLASMA and LCD television in the TV market: Technology may have blurred the differences, but television viewing is more than just about watching moving images. Once you’ve made the right choice, the picture is clearer. Choosing a television set can be quite a daunting task especially if the customer is looking for an LCD or plasma. Choices abound and there are some myths about the technologies, too. Unlike what many believe, there are major differences between the two types and you can’t substitute one type for the other merely on their looks.
To be honest, there isn’t much of a hood to look under. But inside the sleek and thin exterior, plasma TVs employ a matrix of tiny plasma gas cells that are charged by precise electrical voltage to create a picture. In the case of LCD panels, liquid crystal display make up the screen. Imagine liquid crystal pressed between two glass plates to which varying electrical charge is applied to create an image. That’s an LCD television. Despite the advances made in LCD and plasma technology, however, there are experts and gamers (they really do use TVs a lot) maintain that CRT (cathode ray tube or our regular TV) still offers the best quality. Depending on customer’s budget and his requirements (maybe in that order of preference), the choice of an LCD or plasma TV will vary. One line of thinking insists that for basic home theatre requirements, plasma screens are slightly better since they can render black better than LCD TVs. This means that the contrast and, therefore, the level of detail on a plasma TV would be better. The reason LCDs cannot achieve as true a black as plasma TVs can has to do with the liquid that is backlit and does leak a little.
Improvements are happening all the time and in due course, this should be rectified, but by then, plasma may have become the predominant choice. In addition to the above, one of the major factors in favour of plasma TVs is their better viewing angle. This allows viewers to sit at acute angles and still get a clear picture. But it’s not all bad for LCD TVs. One of the biggest advantages they have over plasma TVs is the price . But even technically, there are some advantages that an LCD TV offers. For instance, LCD TVs have higher native resolutions than plasma TVs of the same size.
What this means is there are more pixels on the screen and if you are one of those who like to see every minute detail, an LCD may offer more. Of course, this also depends on the source and an ordinary cable TV connection won’t let you notice the difference. The one myth about LCD TVs that doesn’t hold true for new generation models is the ‘blur’ that was noted in fast scenes or when watching sports (more noticeable when watching a car race as opposed to cricket or snooker! ). This has improved significantly and the difference between a plasma and LCD in this regard is almost negligible.
The running cost of a TV is something that many don’t consider. With increasing screen sizes, the power consumption will also increase and in this regard, LCD TVs outscore plasma TVs once again. LCD TVs are said to consume up to 30% less power than plasma TVs. An another downside that plasma TVs suffer from is the screen burn-in. For whatever reason (and we cannot really think of a reason good enough), you leave your TV on with a still image (say you paused a movie), there is a chance that the ghost of this image may get burned in permanently on the screen. Which means that even if you turn it off, a faded image of this will be visible.
While newer generation Plasma TVs suffer less from this ailment, it hasn’t been entirely eradicated. And if you are wondering about TV channel logos, they are translucent and don’t leave the same sort of ghost behind! When you are looking at plasma or LCD TVs, you may come across a piece of information that says “60,000 hours” or some such number. This is the time for which your plasma TV will have optimum brightness after which it will start to fade off. In case of plasma TVs, the accepted duration ranges between 30,000 and 60,000 hours while in case of LCD TVs, it is virtually guaranteed for 60,000 hours.
If you actually convert this to days, it works out to about 2,500 days or about six years of continuous viewing. * LCD TVs offer more pixels and so you can see more minute details * LCD TVs are said to consume up to 30% less power than plasmas * Plasma screens render black better than LCD TVs. The contrast and level of detail are therefore better * Plasmas offer better viewing angles. It allows you to get a clear picture even from acute angles. Hence after having the preliminary information we get convinced that, it is the customer’s perception which finally takes decision about the type of TV to be purchased. (LCD OR PLASMA TV) 5) Exact nature of the study: As because the differentiation from the customer’s point of view, is no more existed as far as the PLASMA AND LCD television field is concerned, the researcher is interested to find out the perception oriented competent parameters(dominant areas) which are driving the PLASMA AND LCD television market in Mumbai region. In doing so, the researcher will be surveying the customer, user and dealers (retailer) in Mumbai market to analyse the PLASMA and LCD television market. (6) Objectives of the study: a)To identify and analyse various factors influencing the purchase of TV set by the customer. )To differentiate the factors between PLASMA TV and LCD TV. c) To study the impact of new developments (PLASMA TV and LCD TV) on traditional CTV market in Mumbai region. d)To study the current scenario of various companies manufacturing and marketing PLASMA and LCD TV and normal CTV in India. e)To understand the customers’ preferences about the various parameters of PLASMA over LCD TV. IMPORTANCE AND NEED OF THE STUDY: A) Now a days the PLASMA and LCD TV manufacturing and marketing Companies are relooking for the best strategies and are desperate for growth.
B) This study will provide the preference of the customer in the changing marketing environment. C) This study will provide the complete knowledge about the factors influencing customers’ preference to the CTV market. D) It will make the supplier alert about his own strengths and weaknesses and ultimately will give an insight to enhance his sales in the market. Also the supplier will be aware about favourable and unfavourable factors of the customer which influence on the profitability of the industry. E) It will be witnessing a new scenario with a new market profile.
F) To the layman, however, it’s not the technology and how it works that matters but it’s the quality of the TV that he is worried about. Both LCD and PLASMA TVs offer excellent picture quality. But obviously both have their pros and cons. With this study the producer will get an opportunity to understand the same. Significance of CUSTOMER PERCEPTION in TV MEDIUM: 1)To offer better quality of service to the customer after knowing the perception about the product. 2) It would be more convenient to design better Marketing strategy. 3) Provide fast response to the customer (7) Research Methodology
Research Design Research Methodology includes the type of primary and secondary research used for this project i. e. the way in which the data are collected for the research project. The methodology will also include the plan for sampling, the relevant field work and the analysis tools to be sued to interpret the data so collected. Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; rather it refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie a particular study. This is why scholarly literature often includes a section on the methodology of the researchers.
A Research Design provides the framework to be sued as a guide in collecting and analyzing data. Research can be Exploratory, Descriptive or of Casual type. Amongst this Descriptive Research Design has been chosen to carry out this project. Descriptive Research is carried out with definite objective(s) and hence it results in definite conclusion. This research tries to describe the opinion of the respondents on the selected topic of the project. Hypothesis: 1) Customer prefer LCD TV over PLASMA TV. 2) There is a significant impact of PLASMA and LCD TV on the sales of general CTV. Universe of the Study:
The universe of the study is all customer, user, dealers(retailers) in the Mumbai region only. Sampling Plan : About 100 customers(mix of perspective customers and users) and around 50 retailers will be selected as a representative sample from all over Mumbai. As the study is limited to Mumbai city, all the samples will be randomly selected from Mumbai city only. Census is the process of obtaining response from / about each of the member of the population which is not always possible due to the various constraints to the researcher like time, cost etc. In such situations the alternate method of data collection is sampling.
Sampling is the process of selecting a subset of randomized number of constituents of the population of the study and collecting data about their characteristics, facts and opinions. Sampling takes lesser time to collect data at lesser cost and also as the data is less its accuracy often increases as compared to huge data. Sampling methods can be classified into probability and non-probability sampling. In probability sampling each unit in the population has a probability of being selected as the unit of the sample which varies as per method of probability sampling is chosen.
In non-probability sampling there may be instances that certain units of population will have zero probability of selection because the interviewer considered his / her own judgment, convenience and bias for the selection of the sample units of such sampling. Though the probability sampling gives better accuracy in terms of confidence level of the inferences of the study, there are many practical difficulties in fully executing it6. Further, the sample can also be stratified based on the various governing variables.
Appropriate questionnaires will be structured and circulated amongst the sampling units. Sampling Tools The Primary Research shall be focused on Survey, Expert Consultations and Qualitative Research which will include in depth interviews, The specific tools will include. • Questionnaire • Personal Discussions / Interviews schedules. Data collection Data is the basic input to any decision making process in a research study; processing which gives the statistics of importance of the study which can be categorized in to primary and secondary data. A) Primary data:
Primary data may be collected from customer, user, dealers (retailers) through schedules and questionnaires. B) Secondary data: Secondary data can be traced from office record, journals, annual reports and other office documents. Analysis & Interpretation of Data: Statistics is the art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data7. The reason for analyzing data is to understand the variation and its causes in the phenomenon. Since variation is present in all the phenomena, knowledge of it leads to better decisions about a phenomenon that produces the data.
It is from this perspective that the learning of statistics enables the decision maker to understand how to draw conclusions about the large population based upon information obtained from the sample. For the purpose of this research: the thought process that focuses on ways to discover, manage, and decrease the variation present in all phenomenon is statistical thinking; data is the collection of observations of variables of interest while the population is the collection of all elements of interest. This research study is focused on statistical theory in formulating and solving problems.
Descriptive as well as inferential statistics methods will be used in the research; descriptive statistics will include graphic and numeric method both. Limitations of the study: a)The geographical location of the study is limited to Mumbai city only. b) Only the impact of PLASMA and LCD TV on general CTV market will be studied under the proposed research. c) Brand differentiation of all available TV sets in the market will not be considered. d) Technological aspects will not be covered in the study. e) The study is limited to the customers in the age group of 25 to 35yrs. 8) Plan of Work |SR. No. |Particulars of proposed research work |Duration (Months) | | | | | |1. |Collection of Primary Data. |4 | |2 |Collection of Secondary Data. |4 | |3 |Typing the Manuscript. |2 | |4 |Proof Reading. |2 | |5 |Development of Analysis Plan. |4 | |6 |Data Interpretation. 1 | |7 |Drawing Conclusion. |2 | |8 |Drawing Suggestions. |1 | |9 |Miscellaneous work. |4 | | | | | | |Total |24 | (9) Chapter Scheme Chapter 1: Introduction: History and development of audiovisual medium: This chapter deals with the historical development in the audiovisual medium and evolution in the field of TV industry.
Chapter 2: Indian television industry This chapter covers the actual progress in the modern age in the field of television in India. Chapter 3: New developments in CTV industry: An introduction of PLASMA and LCD television in the TV market: In this chapter, specifically the advancements in TV industry in terms of PLASMA and LCD television and their pros and cons will be explain in detailed. Chapter 4: Exact nature of the study: Here, the emphasis will be given on the latest developments in the field of TV Industry (including PLASMA and LCD TV. Chapter 5: Objectives of the study: This chapter covers the basic objectives behind conducting the study. Chapter 6: Analysis and interpretation of Data: This chapter deals with analysis of data using suitable statistical tools and the presentation of the same. Chapter 7: Conclusion and recommendations: In this chapter the conclusion will be drawn on the basis of data analysis and the recommendations shall be presented. Bibliography: Appropriate bibliography will be given at the end of the report for all secondary data in the theses.
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