3. Objective The basic purpose of HRP is to decide what positions the organisation will have to fill and how to fill them. Objectives of human resource planning Forecast personnel requirements Cope with changes Use existing manpower productively Promote employees in a systematic way Human Resource Planning 4. Importance Organisations use HRP to meet future challenges, cut costs, and achieve greater effectiveness Importance of human resource planning Create a talent pool Prepare people for future Cope with organisational changes Cut costs Help succession planning Human Resource Planning 5.
The Process Of HRP The HRP is a four step process: demand forecasting, supply forecasting, estimating manpower gaps and formulating HR plans. The demand for human resources is influenced by several factors Forecasting the demand for human resources External challenges Economic developments Political, legal, social, technological changes Competition Organisational decisions Workforce factors Human Resource Planning 6. The Process Of HRP External Challenges: Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation (LPG era) have created huge demand for people in software, finance marketing, and manufacturing fields.
Organisational Decisions: Decisions such as expansion, diversification, and relocation leading to demand for people possessing requisite skills Workforce Factors: Such as retirement, resignation, and termination etc creating manpower gaps. Human Resource Planning 7. Forecasting Techniques HR forecasts are an attempt to find out an organisation’s future demand for employees Forecasting techniques Expert forecasts Trend analysis Workforce analysis Workload analysis Human Resource Planning 8.
Forecasting techniques Expert Forecasts: These are based on the judgements of those who possess good knowledge of future human resource needs Trend Analysis: This is based on the assumption that the future is an extrapolation from the past. Human resource needs, as such, can be estimated by examining pas trends. An example of trend analysis 2001-02 Production of Units : 5,000 2002-03 No. of Workers : 100 Ratio : 100:5000 2003-04 Estimated Production : 8,000 No. of Workers required : 8000 ? 100 = 160 5000 If supervisors have a p of 20 workers, 8 supervisors are also needed in 2003-04.
Human Resource Planning 9. Forecasting techniques Workforce Analysis: All relevant factors in planning manpower flows in a firm such as transfers, promotions, new recruitments, retirement, resignation, dismissal etc are taken into account while estimating HR needs Manpower flows in a bank Promotions out Transfers In ; ; Job Hopping ; Transfers Out ; Retirement ; VRS Scheme (Golden handshake) Recruits In ; ; Discharge or Dismissal ; Terminations ; Resignations Promotions In ; ; Retrenchment ; Attractions in Other Banks, etc.
Human Resource Planning 10. Forecasting techniques Workload analysis: Based on the planned output, a firm tires to calculate the number of persons required for various jobs. An example of workload analysis Planned output for the year 10,000 pieces Standard hours per piece 3 hours Planned hours required 30,000 hours Productive hours per person per year 1,000 hours (estimated on annual basis) (allowing for absenteeism, turnover, idle time etc. ) No. of workers required 30 If p of control in the unit is 10 per officer, then 3 officers are also required. Human Resource Planning 11.
Supply Forecasting A) Internal labour supply: a manpower inventory in terms of the size and quality of personnel available (their age, sex, education, training, experience, job performance, etc) is usually prepared by HR departments. Several techniques are used while ascertaining the internal supply of manpower (a supply of employees to fill projected vacancies can come from within the firm or from new hires ) Human Resource Planning 12. Estimated internal labour supply for a given firm Sources of Inflows The Firm Projected Outflows ? Promotions ? Transfers ? Quits Current Staffing ?
Promotions Level ? Terminations Employees In Employees Out ? New Recruits ? Retirements ? Recalls ? Deaths ? Layoffs Current Projected Projected Firm’s internal staffing – outflows + inflows = supply for this level this year this year time next year Human Resource Planning 13. Supply Forecasting Staffing table: Shows the number of employees in each job, how they are utilised and the future employment needs for each type of job. Marcov analysis: Uses historical information from personnel movements of the internal labour supply to predict what will happen in the future Human Resource Planning 14.
Marcov analysis for a hypothetical retail company 2003-2004 Store Asst. Store Section Dept. Sales Exit Managers Managers Heads Heds Executives Store Managers 80% 20% (n = 15) 12 3 Asst. Store 11% 83% 6% Managers 4 30 2 (n = 36) Section 15% 11% 66% 8% Heads (n = 94) 11 63 8 14 Departmental 10% 72% 2% 16% Heads (n = 288) 29 207 6 46 Sales Executives 6% 74% 20% (n = 1440) 86 1066 288 Forecasted Supply 16 41 92 301 1072 353 Figures in circles show the transition percentages Human Resource Planning 15. Supply Forecasting Skills inventory: It is a summary of the skills and abilities of non managerial employees used in forecasting supply.
Human Resource Planning 16. Skills inventory: an example Name : A. K. Sen Date printed : 1-4-2004 Number : 429 Department : 41 Key words Work experience Word Description Activity From To Accounting Tax Supervision 1998 2000 T clerk ax ABC Company and analysis Book Keeping Ledger Supervision 2000 2002 Accountant XYZ Co. Auditing Computer Analysis 2002 2003 Chief Accounts TT Bank records Officer Education Special Qualifications M em be rsh ips Degree Major Year Course Date 1. AIMA MBA Finance 1998 DBF 1996 2. ISTD B. Com Accounts 1995 Risk Management 1999 3.
ICA Computer Languages Position Location Hobbies Literacy preference choice ? Tally French Accounting Kolkata Chess ? Banking Auditing Delhi Football Software Bangalore Boating Employees Signature __________ HR Department________ Date _______________________ Date ________________ Human Resource Planning 17. Supply Forecasting Replacement chart: It is a visual representation of who will replace whom in the event of a job opening. Human Resource Planning 18. Replacement chart General Manager Key V. K. Garg Names given are replacement A/2 candidates P A to A.
Promotable now General Manager B. Needing development L. Mathews C. Not suitable to position B/1 1. Superior performance 2. Above Average performance Assistant General Manager 3. Acceptable performance R. K. Arora A/2 4. Poor performance B. K. Nehru B/3 Division: Division: Division: Accounting & Planning Manager Technical Advisor HR Manager Taxation Manager A. N. Gupta A/1 N. R. Murthy B/3 C. P Thakur . A/1 A. T Roy . C/2 K. P Rao . B/1 Northern Region Central Region Southern Region Manager Eastern Region Manager Manager A. Subramanyam B/2 Manager L. C. Srivatsav A/2 S.
P Kumar A/1 . B. K. Menon B/1 R. Krishna B/3 A. Thapar C/4 R. Pandey B/3 Human Resource Planning 19. Supply Forecasting B) External Labour supply: External hires need to be contacted when suitable internal replacements are not available. A growing number of firms are now using computerised human resource information systems to track the qualifications of hundreds or thousands of employees. HRIS can provide managers with a listing of candidates with required qualifications after scanning the data base. Human Resource Planning 20. Important barometers of labour supply 1.
Net migration into and out of the area 2. Education levels of workforce 3. Demographic changes in population 4. Technological developments and shifts 5. Population Mobility 6. Demand for specific skills 7. National, regional unemployment rates 8. Actions of competing employers 9. Government policies, regulations, pressures 10. Economic Forecasts for the next few years 11. The attractiveness of an area 12. The attractiveness of an industry in a particular place Human Resource Planning 21. Manpower Gap Analysis This is used to reconcile the forecasts of labour demand and supply.
This process identifies potential skill shortages or surpluses of employees, skills and jobs Estimating manpower requirements Year 1 2 3 1. Number required at the beginning of the year 2. Changes to requirements forecast during the year DEMAND 3. Total requirements at the end of the year (1+2) ——- —— 4. Number available at the beginning of the year 5. Additions (transfers, promotions) SUPPLY 6. Separations (retirement, wastage, promotions out and other losses) 7. Total available at the end of year (4+5+6) ——————– 8. Deficit or surplus (3-7) RECONCILIA TION 9.
Losses of those recruited during the year OF THE ABOVE 10. Additional numbers needed during the year (8+9) MANPOWER NEEDED Human Resource Planning 22. Formulating HR Plans Once supply and demand for labour is known adjustments can be made formulating requisite HR plans A variety of HR plans ? Recruitment plan ? Redeployment plan ? Redundancy plan ? Training plan ? Productivity plan ? Retention plan Human Resource Planning 23. Responsibility For Human Resource Planning HRP is a top management job. HR plans are usually made by the HR division in consultation with other corporate heads.
Any deviations from the formulated plans and their causes must be looked into, from time to time in order to assess whether the plans require revision or modification. Human Resource Planning 24. Limitations Of Human Resource Planning HR professionals are basically confronted with three problems while preparing and administering HR plans: accuracy, inadequate top management support, lopsided focus on quantitative aspects. Human Resource Planning 25. Effective Human Resource Planning HR plans must fit in with overall objectives of a firm. They must get consistent support from top management.
Computerised human resource information systems must be used for applicant tracking, succession planning, building skills inventories etc. The whole exercise must be carried out in coordination with operating managers. Human Resource Planning 26. 4-1 JOB ANALYSIS 27. INTRODUCTION Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job. Job Analysis 28. Nature of job analysis Job Tasks Job Analysis Job Duties Job Responsibilities Job Analysis 29. -4 Partial job analysis questionnaire The information about a job is usually collected through a structured questionnaire: JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title_______________ Code__________Date_____________ Class Title_______________ Department_____________________ Your Name_________________ Facility___________________________ Superior’s Title______________ Prepared by_______________________ Superior’s Name____________ Hours Worked______AM______to AM____ PM PM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? 2. What was your last job?
If it was in another organisation, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? Cont… Job Analysis 30. Partial job analysis questionnaire 4. If you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: ? Hiring ? Coaching ? Promoting ? Orienting ? Counselling ? Compensating ? Training ? Budgeting ? Disciplining ? Scheduling ? Directing ? Terminating ? Developing ? Measuring Performances ? Other____________ 6.
How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties – Please briefly describe WHAT you do and, if possible, How you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult: Cont… Job Analysis 31. Partial job analysis questionnaire (a) Daily Duties (b) Periodic Duties (Please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. ) (c) Duties Performed at Irregular Intervals 8. Education – Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. No formal education required ? College degree ? Less than high school diploma ? Education beyond graduate ? High school diploma or equivalent degree and/or professional license. ? College certificate or equivalent List advanced degrees or specified professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. Job Analysis 32. Benefits of Job analysis Job analysis information is useful for a variety of organisation purposes ranging from human resource planning to career counselling Job Analysis 33.
Important benefits of Job Analysis Multifaceted Nature of Job Analysis Recruitment Human Resource Planning Selection Job Evaluation Placement Job Design and Training Redesign Performance Counselling Appraisal Employee Safety Job Analysis 34. Who should conduct job analysis? ? Job incumbents themselves ? Supervisors ? External analysts Job Analysis 35. The process of Job analysis The major steps involved in job analysis are: ? Organisational analysis ? Selection of representative positions to be analysed ? Collection of job analysis data ? Preparation of job description ? Preparation of job specification Job Analysis 36.
The Competency Approach to Job Analysis This approach encourages employees to develop role based competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities needed to play diverse roles ) that may be used in diverse work situations, instead of being boxed into a job. Job Analysis 37. Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data Seven general techniques are generally used to collect job analysis data; ? Job performance: the analyst actually performs the job in question and collects the needed information ? Personal observation: the analyst observes others doing the job and writes a summary ?
Critical incidents: job incumbents describe several incidents relating to work, based on past experience; the analyst collects, analyses and classifies data. ? Interview: job incumbents and supervisors are interviewed to get the most essential information about a job Job Analysis 38. Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data ? Panel of experts: experienced people such as job incumbents and supervisors with good knowledge of the job asked to provide the information. ? Diary method: job incumbents asked to maintain diaries or logs of their daily job activities and record the time spent and nature of work carried out. Questionnaire method: job incumbents approached through a properly designed questionnaire and asked to provide details. ? The Position Analysis Questionnaire: it is a standardised form used to collect specific information about job tasks and worker traits. Job Analysis 39. Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data ? Management Position Description Questionnaire: it is a standardised form designed to analyse managerial jobs Management Position Description Factors 1. Product, marketing and financial strategy planning. 2. Coordination of other organisational units and personnel. . Internal business control. 4. Products and services responsibility. 5. Public and customer relations. 6. Advanced consulting. 7. Autonomy of actions. 8. Approval of financial commitments. 9. Staff service. 10. Supervision. 11. Complexity and stress. 12. Advanced financial responsibility. 13. Broad personnel responsibility. Job Analysis 40. Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data ? Functional job analysis: it is a systematic process of finding what is done on a job by examining and analysing the fundamental components of data, people and things.
Job Analysis 41. Behavioural Factors Impacting Job Analysis The following behavioural factors must be taken care of while carrying out a job analysis: ? Exaggerate the facts ? Employee anxieties ? Resistance to change ? Overemphasis on current efforts ? Management straight jacket Job Analysis 42. Job Description And Job Specification The end products of job analysis are: Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done. Job Analysis 43.
Specimen of Job Description Title Compensation manager Code HR/2310 Department Human Resource Department Summary Responsible for the design and administration of employee compensation programmes. Duties ? Conduct job analysis. ? Prepare job descriptions for current and projected positions. ? Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job Evaluation Committee. ? Insure that company’s compensation rates are in tune with the company’s philosophy. Cont… Job Analysis 44. Specimen of Job Description ? Relate salary to the performance of each employee. Conduct periodic salary surveys. Develop and administer performance appraisal programme. ? Develop and oversee bonus and other employee benefit plans. ? Develop an integrated HR information system. Working conditions Normal. Eight hours per day. Five days a week. Report to Director, Human Resource Department. Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics (knowledge, skills and abilities) needed by a person doing a job. Job Analysis 45. Specimen of job specification Education ? MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology. ? A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable.
Experience ? At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large manufacturing company. Skill, Knowledge, Abilities ? Knowledge of compensation practices in competing industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems. ? Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis interviews, in making group presentations, in performing statistical computations ? Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work. Work Orientation Factors ? The position may require upto 15 per cent travel. Age ?
Preferably below 30 years. Job Analysis 46. Role Analysis To have a clear picture about what a person actually does on a job, the job analysis information must be supplemented with role analysis. Role analysis involves the following steps: ? Identifying the objectives of the department and the functions to be carried out therein ? Role incumbent asked to state his key performance areas and his understanding of the roles to be played by him ? Other role partners of the job such as boss, subordinate, peers are asked to state their expectations from the role incumbent ?
The incumbent’s role is clarified and expressed in writing after integrating the diverse viewpoints expressed by various role partners. Job Analysis + dasaritapaswi, 3 months ago Embed . without related content for WordPress. com 1055 views more its use full to students of management Related Presentations An Analysis Of Fm Radio Advertising Rates In The Arab World TOC . Human Resource Planning – Concept And Need. Factors Affe… 17487 views Hrp 2453 views Job Search Tips For New Grads For Slide Share . Hrp 769 views Human Resource Planning Hrp And Corporate Objectives 4079 views Hrp 110 views Hrp 291 views
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