2) A theory is different from an opinion or belief because it (p. 6) a. is considered true by many researchers. b. must be scientifically verified. c. provides a framework in which to observe children’s development. d. incorporates all aspects of children’s development. 3) When theorists believe that development takes place in a process of stages, with changes emerging at specific times, they adopt a(n) __________ view of development. (p. 7) a. integrated b. dynamic c. continuous d. discontinuous 4) A researcher who believes that nature is the major influence on development would likely (p. 9) a. value programs or experiences aimed at promoting change. b. emphasize the stability of children’s characteristics. c. encourage early intervention to help children reach their potential. d. regard heredity and environment as interwoven. 5) John Locke’s view of the child as a tabula rasa, or “blank slate,” is a forerunner of (p. 12) a. the psychoanalytic perspective. b. the dynamic systems perspective. c. behaviorism. d. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory. 6) Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s philosophy includes two influential concepts, the concept of stage and the concept of (p. 12) a. continuity. b. balance. c. maturation. d. nurture. 7) The methods of the normative approach, developed by Hall and Gesell, resulted in a better understanding of (p. 13) a. variation among children. b. nature and nurture as an interwoven network. c. cognition. d. typical development. 8) In contrast to Freud, Erikson (p. 17) a. regarded early experiences as supremely important in shaping later behavior. b. emphasized each person’s unique life history as worthy of study and understanding. c. recognized the lifespan nature of development. d. adopted a stagewise view of development. 9) One strength of the psychoanalytic perspective is its emphasis on __________ as worthy of study. (p. 18) a. the individual’s unique life history b. the culture’s influence on a child’s development c. measurable patterns of behavior d. survival of the species 10) Which of the following are forms of traditional behaviorism? (p. 19) a. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning b. Social learning and observational learning c. Vicarious learning and imitation d. Habituation and recovery 11) According to Bandura’s social learning theory, a baby who waves his hand when someone waves to him is demonstrating (p. 19) a. self-efficacy. b. modeling. c. classical conditioning. d. adaptation. 12) Which of the following is a limitation of behaviorism and social learning theory? (p. 20) a. offers too narrow a view of important environmental influences b. overemphasizes children’s contributions to their own development c. does not have any practical applications d. is too vague to be tested empirically 13) In Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, the stage of development characterized by the symbolic, illogical thinking of a young child is called the __________ stage. (p. 21) a. sensorimotor b. preoperational c. concrete operational d. formal operational 14) The biological concept of __________ is central to Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory. (p. 20) a. equilibrium b. modification c. adaptation d. evolution 15) Which of the following techniques is used by information-processing theorists to map the precise steps that individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks? (p. 23) a. cognitive maps b. schematic representation c. flowcharts d. mental operations charts 16) Ethology, which has roots in the work of __________, is concerned with __________. (p. 24) a. Freud; conflicts b. Darwin; survival c. Piaget; cognition d. Rousseau; maturation 17) Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky regarded cognitive development as (p. 26) a. a biologically mediated process. b. a continuous process. c. a socially mediated process. d. occurring independently of cultural values and tasks. 18) Which statement is true of Vygotsky’s theory? (p. 26) a. It emphasizes the role of brain growth in cognitive change. b. It considers the influence of culture and social interaction on cognitive development. c. It stresses children’s capacity to shape their own development. d. It is concerned with the role of evolution and heredity on behavior. 19) The information-processing approach views children as gradually improving in different cognitive skills. This theory offers a __________ view of development. (p. 31) a. continuous b. discontinuous c. universal d. stagewise 20) Which of the following theories regards nurture as wholly responsible for development? (p. 31) a. information processing b. behaviorism c. sociocultural theory d. ecological systems theory 21) Jennifer’s mother volunteers as a room mother. This connection between home and school illustrates Bronfenbrenner’s (p. 27) a. mesosystem. b. exosystem. c. microsystem. d. macrosystem. 22) What is necessary for welfare reform to succeed in promoting children’s development? (p. 35) a. It must make families self-sufficient. b. It must limit the amount of time a family can remain on welfare. c. It must result in a more adequate standard of living. d. It must guarantee that full-time work is available for parents. 23) In the dynamic systems perspective, a change in any part of the integrated system results in the child (p. 29) a. reorganizing behavior. b. mastering new skills. c. becoming more mature. d. losing trust in the system. 24) Dynamic systems researchers want to do a better job of explaining (p. 29) a. the human genetic heritage. b. the inner lives of children. c. variation in children’s development. d. brain activity in young children. 25) A(n) __________ society is less likely to make social programs for children and families a priority. (p. 34) a. individualistic b. integrated c. collectivist d. democratic
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