Required Readings

Joan Ash

Ash, J. S., Berg, M., & Coiera, E. (2004). Some unintended consequences of information technology in health care: The nature of patient care information system-related errors. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 11(2), 104–112.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 In this article, the authors highlight key areas where unintended consequences and errors are occurring as the result of health information technology use. These errors fall into two distinct categories: input and retrieval errors, and errors caused by poor communication of information.

Ash, J. S., Sittig, D. F., Poon, E. G., Guappone, K., Campbell, E., & Dykstra, R. H. (2007). The extent and importance of unintended consequences related to computerized provider order entry. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14(4), 415–423. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 In this article, the authors discuss the unintended consequences of using computerized provider order entry systems. The article focuses in particular on the effects of human error.

Ash, J. (1997). Organizational factors that influence information technology diffusion in academic health sciences centers. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 4(2), 102–111.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 This article explores the discrepancies in the level of technology implementation and use that may exist between different clinics and hospitals. The author examines the organizational factors that may influence information technology diffusion in academic health sciences centers.

Nancy Lorenzi

Lorenzi, N. M., & Riley, R. T. (2000). Managing change: An overview. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association7(2), 116–124. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 The authors of this article explain various responses to change, especially with respect to medical technologies. In particular, the authors discuss how the medical field has dealt with the extreme changes in medical informatics.

Lorenzi, N. M., Riley, R. T., Blyth, A. J., Southon, G., & Dixon, B. J. (1997). Antecedents of the people and organizational aspects of medical informatics: Review of the literature. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association4(2), 79–93.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 In this article, the authors discuss the importance of the organizational and personal factors behind the implementation of medical informatics. They give an overview of research on complex health systems and how implementation occurs.

Stead, W. W., & Lorenzi, N. M. (1999). Health informatics: Linking investment to value. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association6(5), 341–348.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 

The authors of this article discuss the need for increased emphasis on the value of health informatics. They highlight strategies for demonstrating this value and provide examples that help justify the need for health informatics to have an increased role in health field.

Ben Shneiderman

Shneiderman, B. (1982). The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation. Behaviour & Information Technology1(3), 237–256.

Copyright 1982 by Taylor and Francis Informa UK Ltd.  Reprinted by permission of Taylor and Francis Informa UK Ltd. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 Interactive systems are a crucial part of medical informatics. In this piece, Schneiderman explores the future possibilities for increasing the capabilities of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation.

Shneiderman, B. (1996). The eyes have it: A task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations. Visual Languages, Proceedings on Digital Object Identifier, 336–343. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 The author of this article provides his perspective on the role visual languages play in medical informatics. The article explores how a task may be visualized according to its data type taxonomy.

Plaisant, C., Mushlin, R., Snyder, A., Li, J., Heller, D., & Shneiderman, B. (1998). LifeLines: Using visualization to enhance navigation and analysis of patient records. In Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium (p. 76). American Medical Informatics Association.

 In this article, the authors explain how visualization may enhance the navigation and analysis of patient records. The authors elaborate on how visualization offers capabilities beyond those of simple text and tables.

Diane Forsythe

Forsythe, D. E., & Buchanan, B. G. (1991). Broadening our approach to evaluating medical information systems. In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care (pp. 8–12). American Medical Informatics Association.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247485/

 The authors of this article provide a perspective on the conventional wisdom of using controlled clinical trials to conduct evaluations in medical informatics. The authors critique many of the underlying assumptions of this evaluation method and suggest a more expansive approach to evaluation.

Forsythe, D. E. (1992). Using ethnography to build a working system: Rethinking basic design assumptions. In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care (pp. 505–509). American Medical Informatics Association.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247982/

 This article examines a 3-year interdisciplinary project that focused on building a patient education system on migraine headaches. The author discusses the use of ethnography in the design of the system.

Rosenal, T. W., Forsythe, D. E., Musen, M. A., & Seiver, A. (1995). Support for information management in critical care: A new approach to identify needs. In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care (p. 2). American Medical Informatics Association.

Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2578881/

 This article focuses on managing information in critical care. The authors explore a unique approach to identifying useful findings about clinical information management.

Chuck Friedman

Cork, R. D., Detmer, W. M., & Friedman, C. P. (1998). Development and initial validation of an instrument to measure physicians’ use of, knowledge about, and attitudes toward computers. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association5(2), 164–176.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors discuss the results of a questionnaire given to physicians to measure their knowledge about and attitudes toward computer use in health care. The article describes how this information can be used to improve the relationship between health care providers and those in the field of medical informatics.

Friedman, C. P. (1995). Where’s the science in medical informatics? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association2(1), 65–67.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 The author of this article discusses the developing field of medical informatics and the need for science to be an integral part of the discipline. The author provides an example of a PhD student who faced issues in pursuing further education in medical informatics.

Friedman, C. P., Elstein, A. S., Wolf, F. M., Murphy, G. C., Franz, T. M., Heckerling, P. S., et al. (1999). Enhancement of clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning by computer-based consultation: A multisite study of two systems. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association282(19), 1851–1856.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 The authors of this article examine how the diagnostic reasoning of clinicians may be enhanced by computer-based consultations. The article focuses on decision support systems

Kaplan, B., Brennan, P. F., Dowling, A. F., Friedman, C. P., & Peel, V. (2001). Toward an informatics research agenda: Key people and organizational issues. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association8(3), 235–241.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 This article proposes methods for improving how information technology is developed and executed. The authors focus on how demographics and social and organizational issues can influence information technology.

Sue Bakken

Hyun, S., Johnson, S. B., Stetson, P. D., & Bakken, S. (2009). Development and evaluation of nursing user interface screens using multiple methods. Journal of Biomedical Informatics42(6), 1004–1012.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 This article describes a study of nurses’ perceptions of a variety of Electronic Health Record (EHR) elements. These elements included the functional requirements for an electronic nursing documentation system, design user interface screens, and the usability of prototype user interface screens. 

Newbold, S. K., Kuperman, G. J., Bakken, S., Brennan, P. F., Mendonca, E. A., Park, H. A., & Radenovic, A. (2004). Information technology as an infrastructure for patient safety: Nursing research needs. International Journal of Medical Informatics73(7), 657–662. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 In this article, the authors describe the process of creating research questions to determine effective ways of promoting technology as an infrastructure for increasing patient safety in the nursing field. The article identifies information technology that can assist in improving safety.

Matney, S., Bakken, S., & Huff, S. M. (2003). Representing nursing assessments in clinical information systems using the logical observation identifiers, names, and codes database. Journal of Biomedical Informatics36(4–5), 287–293.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 In this article, the authors explain the significance of the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Code (LOINC) Database. The article describes how the LOINC database enables greater accuracy in determining how the nursing process contributes to diagnoses and interventions.

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