“Will Teaching Parents how to Parent decrease Juvenile Crime” What Is the Best Evidence Based Program that can be Implemented and Successful In Reducing Juvenile Crime By Vanessa Figures Capable University Dry. Linda Samuels Table of Contents I. Abstract II. Problem Statement Ill. Introduction ‘V. Conclusion V. Annotated Bibliography A. Juvenile Crimes and statistics B. Support for parental education & Importance of parents In reducing Juvenile crime. C. Opposition to parental importance in reducing juvenile crime D. Theories VI. References Abstract There are 70. Lion juveniles in the united States, of those 1. 7 million juveniles committed crimes in 2010, Many theories and evidence based research exist that support and oppose the importance parents play in a juvenile’s life. There are many factors in determining behavior and its causation and no “one” solution will stop juvenile crime. One common theme is found in research studies on Juvenile crime, and Its prevention, and that Is educating parents on parenting can reduce Juvenile crime. What theories work and Is their concrete evidence wealth research to support the parental interventions?
Problem Statement: Juvenile Crime and parenting education: Will teaching parents how to parent decrease Juvenile crime? What parenting method works best In nurturing and providing the needs of the Juvenile, and what evidence based theoretical program exists that can intervene? Introduction In the United States there are 70. 5 million Juveniles under the age of 18, of those in the past year 1. 7 million have been involved with the “Juvenile Justice System”. In the last one hundred years the Juvenile system has used an offender based approach to along Walt Juvenile crime. Away as our closely NAS change Ana ten clientele understanding of behavior has improved there is a great need to find evidence based answers (Hinting, Sims, Adam & West, 2007). The Justice system has changed over to an offense based approach that seeks to find solutions, but the offense is the end result of choice and behavior. The Juvenile offender needs to be the focus, many research studies site that lack of parental education is part of the problem, so it goes without saying that part of the solution should be parental education (Hinting, Sims, Adam & West, 2007).
There are psychological, physical and biological factors in determining the best prevention method in Juvenile crime. The younger the offender the more likely they will continue in a life of crime. Palermo, (2006), sites parental monitoring, consistency, and ability as factors in determining the risk of Juvenile delinquency. Criminal behavior does not Just start one day, anti-social behavior is nurtured by environmental, biological, sociological, and parenthetical factors.
The Juvenile Justice system uses many evidence based methods, one such method is the use of “Risk Assessment”. Is their validity in the use of risk assessments in determining the carcinogenic factor and the propensity to re-offend? Does parenting lay a factor in Juvenile offenders and their likelihood of re-offending? Many factors are studied and supported, however there are unreliable statistics within the research field. However; one common theme appears to play a formative foundational role in Juvenile carcinogenic behavior.
That is the role of the parent and the lack of consistent, nurturing, structure, and monitoring parenting abilities (Webster, MacDonald, & Simpson, 2006). In a study completed by Monsoon, (2004), findings showed that the need for parental education in character building is not only necessary, but imperative. The study does not stop with the parents, but also shows that Juveniles also need strength based character training. The objective of this training is to strengthen the characters of the parent and Juvenile by teaching hope, kindness, social intelligence, self-control, and perspective.
The study purports that strengthening these positive character traits in Juveniles and their parents will not only provide a strong foundation, but also buffer the negative effects of tension, and trauma, thus preventing extenuating disorders that can introduce itself due to the negative actions of others in the Juvenile’s life. Character strengths are here defined as a family of positive traits reflected in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors” (Monsoon, 2004). When parents are not educated they are left with parents whose parenting skills are skewed, inconsistent, and/or non-existent.
The importance of communication and education between the Juveniles and parents cannot be stressed enough. Further when a Juvenile’s behavior causes stress in parents then the outcome is a behavioral circle where the Juvenile acts out, causing the parents behavior toward the Juvenile to become negative and this continues over and over again. These factors all play a role in the carcinogenic factor of Juvenile delinquency (Stewart, Simons, Conger, & Carmella, 2004). There are many research studies that put the inability of a parent to parent as a major role in the determination of Juvenile delinquency. Never, Culled, & Agene, (2006) article contends that “bad parenting” is a carcinogenic factor in causes for delinquent juveniles. Many who have researched this topic have agreed on this fact, but what constitutes a “Dad parent’ Research snows Tanat many Doctors go Into ten explanation; two main theories are focused on in this study; low self-control and preferential association and social learning and their competing accounts of why bad parenting matters. Juveniles will follow the social norms they are around; there is a kind of conforming even when their life at home may be far different from that of their social crowd.
Juveniles that have low self-control will ultimately seek out anti- social structures and will either lead or follow those structures. Unfortunately most of the time Juveniles are followers that are looking for acceptance and support. When those needs are not received at home Juveniles will look for it elsewhere, The robber with this is many social settings that offer this support are gangs, adult criminals and anti-social peers (Never, Culled, & Agene, 2006). There is empirical evidence to show that there is a strong link between parental mismanagement and Juvenile delinquency.
This study believes that parental education is a necessary support system that will reap great rewards not only to families but their communities as well. The Justice system believes that using court sanctions will deter Juveniles from crime and recidivism. However this has an affect not only on the Juvenile, but the parent as well. This study suggests that the Justice yester look to build the Juveniles strengths and their families and this will eventually reduce Juvenile crime in our nation (Never, Culled, & Agene, 2006).
Not all research agrees that parents are the foundational source necessary to decrease juvenile crime. In a study completed by Barry, Brick, & Grandma, (2008) does not support, that parenting is the cause of delinquent behavior. There has been much research into parenting skills, ability, positive, negative etc. , but there have been few research studies completed on understanding the internal and external emotional behavioral functioning of Juveniles extensively enough. In this study, they attempt to show that even if a child grows up under inadequate parents this does not preclude that they will become delinquent.
The study sites the need for multiple research studies on psychological and behavioral factors, not Just outside factors (Barry, Brick, & Grandma, 2008). Theory should be testable, coherent, economical, generalized, and be able to explain findings. These characteristics serve as a primary function of theory and that is to generate new ideas and new discoveries. There are a few evidence based theories being implemented within the Juvenile justice system (Higgins, 2005). Two theories that are being successfully implemented are Dry.
William Classer’s “Choice Theory’ and Dry. James Alexander “Functionalist Theory’. These theories have been use for the last 6 years successfully in motivating behavioral changes in parenting and Juvenile behaviors (Adler, 2008). This theory believes that all behavior comes from within, that the choices we make start with our needs at that time. “Choice Theory’ has five needs that are intrinsic and the root cause of the observed behavior. These are to survive, belong and be loved by others, have power and importance, freedom and independence, and to eave fun.
These desires within generate behavior and desires. Juveniles that are socially broken and have not been taught self control, limits and social norms are more inclined towards crime. The theory works on the social structure of the Juvenile and their families and facilitates their own ability to see where the problems are and work towards strengthening the weak areas (Burdens, 2010). Brand, Lane, I runner, I-Alan, & Sense , (u/) completed a pilot program to research Intervention Tanat sought to improve parental communication and social peer choice.
The study was lull in the end, but there were positive changes within the control group in better communication and spending time with their parents. The Juveniles also felt closer to their parents and had more trust in them overall. The researchers sited that level of program intensity, implementation issues, and other problems inherent in doing this type of research are provided as possible explanations for the lack of differences. In another similar study completed by Prone, Sullivan, Pratt, & Maryanne, (2004) observed more positive outcomes from their study.
The site that many studies have en completed, but they fall short in their ability to truly represent a national sample of youth and levels of delinquency. “The Self Control Theory’ has been widely accepted, this study sought to show that “Self Control Theory’ in and of itself is not a predictor of Juvenile delinquency. Rather many factors such as parenting ability are just as predictive and supported. Conclusion In order to find and implement strong evidence based program in educating parents on parenting, much research and interviewing has been completed.
There are hundreds of articles that substantiate that parenting ability is one of the nutritional factors in predicting Juvenile crime in the United States. There are few articles that challenge the findings of these research studies. One such study stated that there have been few research studies completed on understanding the internal and external emotional behavioral functioning of Juveniles extensively enough. That without such studies it would be wrong to strongly state that parenting is a major factor in Juvenile crime (Barry, Brick, & Grandma, 2008).
Dry. James Alexander founded “Functionality Therapy’ this therapy works on the premise that when a Juvenile is put into a program for an extended time and take from their implies that change occurs. The problem is that when the Juvenile comes home he/ she comes back into the same environment they left. This causes chaos and confusion within the Juvenile, “Functionality Therapy’ seeks to help the family see their strengths and work on those strengths together with the Juvenile (.
This program was started in 1972 and is now used nationwide in the United States and abroad. “Functional Family Therapy’ (FT), has provided significant and long-term reductions in youth re-offending and violent behavior, effectiveness in reducing sibling entry into high-risk behaviors, Low drop-out and high completion rates, and Positive impacts on family conflict, family communication, parenting, and youth problem behavior. “One of Fat’s hallmarks is its ability to fit an array of service delivery settings where at-risk adolescents are served.
The robustness of the model has resulted in numerous adaptations of the traditional FT model; as a case management practice for Juvenile Probation and Parole Officers (OFF), as a comprehensive Child Welfare intervention (FT OCW), and as part of a continuum of evidence-based programs within Juvenile Justice” (Brand, Turner, Fain, & Shall, 2007). The continuing research into this program and its ability to fit into the immunity will be implemented in the coming weeks in order to ensure that the program will indeed help to reduce Juvenile crime and recidivism in the “Juvenile Justice system”. O Tar ten research does support TN e Y I Model an successfully within the system. Annotated Bibliography l. Juvenile Crimes and statistics TTY to work Hinting, J. , Sims, P. , Adams, M. , & West, C. (2007). Juvenile Justice a system divided. Retrieved from Capable University library on 1/23/11 from. Http:// www. Supplications. Com A. The “Juvenile Justice System” is divided in deciding which type philosophy to follow. The offense-based approach compared to the offender-based approach on which the Juvenile Justice system was founded.
Where do the family and community fit into this philosophy? Palermo, G. (2006). Editorial: Juvenile crime: A renewed suggestion for prevention. Retrieved from Capable University library on 1/25/11 from. Http://I]o. Seepage. Com/content/ 46/6/627 B. There are psychological, physical and biological factors in determining the best prevention method in Juvenile crime. Atone time the ages between 18-35 were well known as the ages that most crimes are committed. Today the offenders are such younger, the younger the offender the more likely they will continue in a life of crime.
Parental monitoring, consistency, and ability are also a factor in determining the risk of Juvenile delinquency. Webster, C. , MacDonald, R. , & Simpson, M. (2006). Predicting criminality? Risk factors, neighborhood influence and distance. Retrieved from Capable University on 01122/11 from. Http://www. Supplications. Com C. What is the validity of risk assessments in determining the carcinogenic factor and re-offending? Does parenting play a factor in Juvenile offenders and their likelihood of re-offending?
Many factors are studied and supported, however there are unreliable statistics within the research field and this article shows how this affects the role of parent and Juvenile delinquency. II. Support for parental education & importance of parents in reducing Juvenile crime. Monsoon, P. (2004). Character strengths and positive youth development. Retrieved from Capable University library on 01/21/11 from. Http://www. Supplications. Com A. This article supports both parental and Juvenile education; the goal is to strengthen the characters of both by teaching hope, kindness, social intelligence, self-control, and perspective.
The objective purports that strengthening these positive character traits in Juveniles and their parents will not only provide a strong foundation, but also buffer the negative effects of tension, and trauma, thus preventing extenuating Lassoers Tanat can Introduce Itself Owe to ten negative actions of others in the Juvenile’s life. “Character strengths are here defined as a family of positive traits reflected in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors”. Stewart, E. , Simons, R. , Conger, R. , & Carmella, L. (2004). Legal sanctions beyond the international relationship between delinquency and parenting practices.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved from Capable University Library on 01/21/11 from. Http://www. Supplications. Com B. The article shows parents whose parenting skills are skewed, inconsistent, and/ or non-existent produce delinquent Juveniles. The article goes on to state the importance of communication between the Juveniles and parents. When a Juvenile’s behavior causes stress in parents then the outcome is a behavioral circle where the juvenile acts out, causing the parents behavior toward the Juvenile to become negative and this continues over and over again. Maneuver. , Culled, F. Agene, R. (2006).
Why is “bad” parenting carcinogenic? Implications from rival theories. Retrieved from Capable University library on 01/20/11 from. Http://yam. Seepage. Com/content/4/113 C. The research for this article contends that “bad parenting” is a carcinogenic factor in causes for delinquent Juveniles. Many who have researched this topic have agreed on this fact, but what constitutes a “bad parent”? This research shows that many factors go into the explanation, two main theories are focused on in this article; low self-control and differential association and social learning and their competing accounts of why bad parenting matters.