Guided Response: Respond individually to at least two peers. Assume the role of a faculty member at the local university and ask questions of your peers about the creation of an IRB and how it protects individuals’ rights when conducting research. Though two replies is the basic expectation, for deeper engagement and learning, you are encouraged to provide responses to any comments or questions others have given to you, including the instructor. Responding to the replies given to you will further the conversation and provide additional opportunities for you to demonstrate your content expertise, critical thinking, and real-world experiences with this topic.
Discuss the purpose of creating an IRB. Highlight how the IRB is a way to ensure that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in the research especially regarding special populations.
The article chosen for the bullet discussion is Connelly, L.M. (2014). Ethical considerations in research studies MedSurg Nursing. 23 (1) 54-55
After reading the IRB, the purpose is to ensure privacy, techniques, collaboration, and communication to provide research outcomes. Many higher education institutions and school districts protect the rights of human subjects by requiring a review process for proposed research (Mertler, 2017). This statement aligns with the concept of protecting the equal rights of other personal information. During the study, it’s imperative to obtain reliable facts and details relating to the topic. As an example, providing research about a student needs professional evaluations, parents, and the cause and effects of concern or challenge in the learning environment. Protecting the rights and confidentiality of human subjects is the primary purpose of an institutional review board (Connelly, 2014). While ethical practices are the responsibility of the researchers themselves, it is crucial for educational systems to also provide protections for the human subjects (Mertler, 2017). When conducting research that will include human subjects, it is required to obtain the permission of the subjects, the parents or guardians. By gaining these permissions, the researcher is ensuring that all subjects are aware of the study and what the study will entail. Each member of the IRB should be focused on providing the proper permissions have been given, conduct a thorough review of the participants and the cognitive abilities of the participants, and ensure that there are methods of communication between the IRB, researchers, and participants.
One example of the benefit of implementing an IRB body can be seen through the collaboration of Shaw University, a historically black university and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. To establish a strong partnership, they created a human research ethics committee that helped Shaw look at all of the research done on campus. Shaw had had an incredible amount of grants totaling $20 million that had been awarded in such a short amount of time so there was a strong need for an established method of review that would help keep things systematically moving forward in the future. Shaw understood the need to have a diverse committee that reflected a wide range of representation. Different backgrounds and expertise were relevant. They also helped in getting adequate resources whether related to federal and non-federal research. Their aim was truly to help educate their campus and that they did.
Discuss how the implementation of an IRB body will be established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to participate in research activities conducted under the auspices of the institution with which it is affiliated.
The IRB should consist of a minimum of 5 members. These members should all have experience or knowledge regarding research procedures, and diverse in subject matter expertise (Connelly, 2014). There should be an attempt to have at least one member of the IRB from an external source. This provides for the perception of the IRB protecting the school or researcher from embarrassment. After the researcher has provided an overview of the proposed study, the IRB will then have a better understanding of how they can ensure that the human subjects are protected under the confidentiality agreements (Mertler, 2017).
To ensure the IRB Implementation, the individuals will engage to provide communication, collaboration, and problem-solving techniques to ensure an ongoing action plan. Ensuring that participation in studies remains voluntary and all information is provided to the participants is a role of the members of an IRB (Connelly, 2014). The IRB allows the information to be discussed using small groups, research methods, and professional support to analyze data, assessments, and awareness relating to a specific topic. The IRB is needed at a university to support the student’s rights to education, cultural beliefs, and confidentiality will play an enormous role while succeeding in a college career choice.
Connelly, L. M. (2014). Ethical considerations in research studies. MedSurg Nursing, 23(1). 54-55.
Howard, D., Boyd, C. Nelson, D., & Godley, P. (2010). Getting From A to IRB: Developing an Institutional Review Board at a Historically Black University. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal, 5(1), 75. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu
Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators (5th ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/
“The Institutional Review Board is an administrative body established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to participate in research activities conducted by an institution” (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The IRB is responsible for reviewing all research involving humans and focuses on rights, welfare and privacy of those participating in the research. An IRB is necessary to protect those who participate in research. IRB especially protects those with diminished autonomy. “These boards function by reviewing proposed research studies in order to safeguard and protect human subjects involved in a research study “(Mertler,2017). IRB insure that the researchers respect those in the study, get informed consent from participants during the study, and assess the risks during the study.
Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators (5th ed.)
Institutional Review Board is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects involved in research (Institutional Review Board Handbook, 2019). IRB, has the authority to approve, disapprove and modified all research activities within its institutional policy. According to “Legal and Ethical Complexities of Consent with Cognitively Impaired Research Subjects”, “Experimental proposals should be carefully reviewed, but long delays in processing can be detrimental to scientific progress. A national review board will be unable to review efficiently all experimental proposals involving cognitively impaired subjects. Local IRBs are adequate forums to address these issues provided that they are given clear guidelines, 1996)”. The experiment’s that are modified to implement these rules need to have all board members present to make their final decision on what should happened next. The board members have a job to conduct to protect the rights of everyone involved.
Ashford Unversity. (2019). Institutional Review Board Handbook
Jessica Wilen Berg. (1996) Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
The purpose of an Institutional Review Board is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects involved in research activities being conducted under its authority (Human Research Protection Office, 2019). The IRB is charged with the responsibility of reviewing, prior to its initiation, all research (whether funded or not) involving human participants. The IRB is passionate about protecting the welfare, rights, and privacy of all individuals. The IRB has the authority to approve, disapprove, monitor, and require modifications in all research activities that fall within its jurisdiction as specified by both the federal regulations and institutional policy (Oregon State University, 2019). The IRB shall have at least five members of varying backgrounds in order to provide complete and adequate review of human research and its institutional, legal, scientific, and social implications (Oregon State University, 2019). I feel by the Institutional Review Board has a committee of diverse individuals will make sure everyone is being treated with respect. When individuals are involved in research it is essential for their family and communities to show support.
According to the article on Special Population Requirement, it discusses Parent Consent, Child Assent, and Group Assent. Parent Consent means that parents have to sign for their child(ren) to participate in the research. Also, the parents have to know what their child is going to be doing or what expected from them to accomplish. Child Assent means “children can only be approached with assent after parental consent has been given. The assent can be scripted interaction, though with older minors it can be documented (Special Population Requirements, 2019). The assent must be in age-appropriate language, explaining that their parents have consented for them to participate (Special Population Requirements, 2019). Communication is very important because the students need to know what they are going to be involved in. This will allow the parent(s) and other individuals to know if the students are comfortable about what they are doing and feel confident doing it. When it comes to Group Assent, the IRB discourage it because some students probably do not want to participate in the procedures/activity. Lastly, IRB focuses on treating all individuals with equality and putting their expectations and wants first to make sure their well-being is taken care of during the research.
Human Research Protection Office. (2019). Chapter 2-Purpose of the Human Research Protection Office and Institutional Review Board. Retrieved from https://www.irb.pitt.edu/content/chapter-2-purpse-human-research-protection-office-and-institutional-review-board
Oregon State University. (2019). What is the Institutional Review Board (IRB)? Retrieved from https://research.oregonstate.edu/irb/frequently-asked-questions/what-institutional-review-board-irb
University of Florida. (2019). Special Population Requirements. Retrieved from http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/informed-consent-instructions-procedures/students.html