Explain the effects of five different life stages on the development of an individual. In today’s society it is almost impossible to grow up without being affected by the things around us. During an individual’s development there are five main key factors that affect them. These include: * Genetic factors * Socio- economic factors * Biological factors * Lifestyle factors * Environmental factors To begin with, there are 23 chromosomes in each cell found in the nucleus.
It is these cells that determine the hereditary of a child as well as the sex during conception. Genetic diseases make up a large proportion of the total disease burden, for example 50% of deafness is due to genetics as well as 40-50% of miscarriages. Another disease that is generally caused by genetics is cystic fibrosis which is caused by a defective gene. As many as four people in the UK have this gene; however the gene is recessive meaning children will only get the gene if both parents are carriers. Cystic fibrosis results in a sticky mucus forming in the lungs, pancreas and intestines, and in the past it meant a low life expectancy but today a lot can be done to solve this. In relation to Jason asthma also seen as a genetic disease and Jason’s development of asthma could be a result of his Mother smoking of drinking during pregnancy. However the causes of asthma may not just be due to genetic inheritance but also due to environmental factors which I will further later in the essay. Closely related to this and sometimes somewhat confused are biological factors.
Biological factors also start from conception and one of these is Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) which is the biggest cause of mental handicap in the western world as well as the only one that is 100% preventable. The first stages in prenatal are the most important and again this relates to Jason as one of the effects of FAS is falling behind with leaning development and Jason found school hard to cope with but in the end caught up, however this could be as a result of many reason and it does not mean his mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. A woman’s diet also affects the foetus as well as during breast eeding, research shows that if a mother had a high sugar diet her child is more likely to develop high cholesterol and a higher risk of heart disease in later life. Malnutrition or a lack of health food could also lead to poor health for the child in later life Jason’s mother also could have smoke during pregnancy leading to his asthma. Socioeconomic factors also heavy a heavy impact on development for example if a family is poor there is a higher risk a child will suffer from malnutrition as well as the fact in later life they will want to do better.
Within the factor is values and attitudes, a prime example of this would be education, if parents have went to college they will more than likely want their children to as well, however it could also be argued that if parent haven’t went to college they will want their children to achieve more in life than they did. In relation to Jason although he may want to go to college he may not be able to as he does not come from a well off family and may not be able to afford to do so. Continuing on from this is Lifestyle factors, which is a highly varied subject.
For example a person who has been brought up in a poor household will be completely different that one brought up in a well off household. Nutrition and dietary is a big part of this however it is only if you are reasonably well off that you can afford to buy the healthier choices. As well as this alcohol intake and the misuse of substances can affect you and this happens to be on of the most controversial issues in society. It can have social, physical and mental effects on an individual from the expense, to long term health risks or the fact it could lead to depression.
In relation to Jason’s lifestyle the fact he may not be able to afford college and the fact he lives in a high density housing estate may mean he is not that well off money wise meaning he may not get the healthiest foods and could also have been bullied not only as a result of his asthma but also as he cannot afford the things some of the other children could. Lastly is environmental factors, this has a huge impact on our development and research shows that 1 out of 5 children are malnourished. However this is a varied range of situations.
Exposure to pollution as well as poor housing can lead to health problems for example carbon monoxide takes away oxygen from the red blood cells as they have a higher affinity for it which can then lead to heart disease and nitrogen and sulphur dioxide can lead to lung disease as these gases irritate the lungs. This is not the only environmental effect however, Jason got bullied a lot at school which means he could suffer from depression and will have low self-esteem in later life. As well as this fact when he was 8 his parents divorced which leaves a great mental effect on individuals and at his age it was a lot to go through.
Separation can lead to anger issues for the child as well as abandonment issues and this could even go on to affect Jason in later life it could even lead to AD (anxiety disorder) which could be as the child’s routine is disrupted. Jason’s parents’ divorce may be the reason he fell behind at school and when he reached adolescence he adapted which may be why his school work improved. Environmental factors can affect development both physically and mentally. In conclusion all five factors can affect an individual’s development as shown through the example of Jason, and all five have different effects yet still equally important
Bibliography * http://www. livestrong. com/article/217996-factors-affecting-early-child-development/ *http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/surviving-your-childs-adolescence/201112/the-impact-divorce-young-children-and-adolescents *http://www. ucl. ac. uk/support-pages/information/alcohol-and-drug-abuse *http://www. lbl. gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f. html *http://uk-air. defra. gov. uk/air-pollution/effects *http://www. succeedsocially. com/lifestyle *Class notes *Moodle
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