1) The study of modern European and American ideas about crime and justice begins with the radical new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. How do these new ideas differ from the views of crime and punishment held by the previous generations?
2) What are the main differences between Beccaia’s and Lombroso’s explanations of the reasons people commit crimes? How do these explanations compare and contrast with everything that you have learned during your undergraduate studies? Provide at least two examples to illustrate your point of view.
3) The end of 19th century brought about a new interest in juvenile delinquency. Summarize the most important findings introduced by Shaw ad McKay while focusing on the following question: can we apply their findings to explain the crime situation in the city of Chicago in the 21st century? Provide some specific examples, utilizing statistics about crime spikes in Chicago in the last decade.
4) The sociology of law views the law as a product of social forces. Identify at least 3 different theories about how societies develop and create their legal standards, while addressing the following question: is our current legal system, in the United States, a product of any of the theories that you have identified?
5) What were the extraordinary changes in the nature of the law that took place during Holme’s time on the bench? Do you see any similarities to our times? If yes, provide some examples, if not explain why not.