# Calorimeter Process

1. Introduction
The study as a survey for nozzle operated under force per unit area difference from 0.1 to 10 bars. Under this specification the study discuss the following point.

The factor impacting on the nozzle efficiency
Application in natural gas
Consequence of nozzle efficiency on the quality of burning and how the quality of burning could be enhanced

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1.1. Definition
The nose defined as: device puting in the flow way to accomplish alteration in force per unit area, temperature and the speed besides it can specify as an mechanical device designed to accomplish commanding procedure on the way or feature of the fuel flow as it exits or entry it can take the form of an closed chamber or pipe via an opening.
Mention: http//www.Engineeringtoolbox.com
1- Pressure
We con notice that when the fluids flow through the nose as the force per unit area increased the discharge rate besides increased and all other factor remains changeless. The relationship between the force per unit area and discharge from a nozzle issue is
A cardinal equation. The theoretical discharge from any nose
Given by the following relation.
Flow rate = CA ( 2gh ) 5
C Means the dimensionless coefficient for the peculiar nose in inquiry.
A Means the country of the nozzle opening.
h- Means the force per unit area caput applied to the nose.
G Means the acceleration of gravitation.
As the force per unit area acts in the nozzle issue it straight affect to the watercourse of fuel.let us compare in the below figure between the gas watercourse with different force per unit area.
1- Differential force per unit area flow metres
In instance of the differential force per unit area bead this device used to cipher the flow by mensurating the force per unit area bead over an obstructor inserted in the flow. The chief thought of the differential force per unit area flow metre is based on the Bernoulli equation. These achieved by mensurating force per unit area bead signal as map of square flow velocity.
p1 + 1/2? v12 = p2 + 1/2? v22
The most common types of differential force per unit area flow metres are
a- Orifice home base
With the utilizing of the opening home base, the fluid flow is measured through the difference in force per unit area from the upstream side to the downstream side. As demoing in figure 1: this procedure used in instance when dont needs for high truth.
b- Venturi tubing
Its best used in our instance because this setup used in instance of low force per unit area bead between the recess and the mercantile establishment of nose. In the Venturi tubing application the flow rate is measured by cut downing the cross subdivision flow country in the way of the fluid flow
After the constricted country, the fluid passes through the force per unit area recovery subdivision. When up to 80 % of the differential force per unit area generated at the constricted country, is recovered with proper instrument and flow calibrating. The venture tubing flow can be less to about 10 per centum of its full graduated table scope with proper truth.
c- Flow nose
The flow nose are frequently used as measuring elements for gas flow application
When the gas accelerated through the nose, the speed addition and the force per unit area so the gas denseness decreased and the maximal speed done in the pharynx subdivision.
– Recovery of force per unit area bead in openings, noses and venture metres
After the force per unit area difference has been generated in the differential flow metre. The fluid passing during the force per unit area recovery subdivision. By agencies where the differential force per unit area generated at the constricted country is partially recovered
2- Variable country flow metre
The rotameter composed of an vertically glass tubing with big terminal in the top subdivision of the chief organic structure of the rotameter and metering float which it free move. when the fluid flow causes the float rise in the tubing and use the relation of
I” P = H * g * P
Where
I” P =pressure difference between recess and mercantile establishment
H = float entering
P = fluid denseness
3- Velocity flowmeters
In this procedure the flow calculated by mensurating the velocity and cipher the force per unit area difference from the following relation
p1 p2 = 1/2 P ( v22- P v12 )
4- Pitot tubings
The Pitot tubing are one the most used in air flow measuring. The chief thought for its operation is in step the fluid speed by change overing the kinetic energy to possible energy.
5- Calorimetric flowmeter
This device rule for fluid flow measuring is based on two temperature detectors in close contact with the fluid but thermic insulated from each other. one of the two detectors is contactly heated so there are temperature difference between the measuring of the two detectors.
5-turbine flowmeter
6-vortex flowmeter
7-electromagnetic flowmeter
8-ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter
9-positive supplanting flowmeter
10-mass flowmeters
11-thermal flowmeter
12-open channel flowmeter
Calorimetric operation theory
The chief thought for the operation theory of the calorimetric flowmeter based on measurings for the temperature before and after the nose by utilizing two detector and change overing this difference to signal translated by the use of the gage indexs. When the fluid flow start go throughing into the nose the heat energy is drawn from the heated detector and the temperature difference is straight relative to the fluid flow rate through the nose
Advantages and disadvantages of calorimetric flowmeter
Advantages Disadvantages
1-high truth at minimal flow rate 1-costs
2- In general lower thermic conduction require higher speed for proper measuring. 2-appear cavitations in high velocity
3-easy in its operation procedure 3-normally operates at low scope
4-High repeatability 4-low noisy factor
5- high dynamic response 6-high sensitiveness
7-small dimension ( portable )
Lab application
Calorimetric provides two types of informations. The first type is measuring of the heat capacities. This leads to values of the standard information St, the heat content ( or heat content ) HT- HS. And the heat contents and the informations of rapid stage alterations ( merger, vaporisation, polymorphism ) of a individual stuff. the 2nd type of measuring of heats of chemical reaction ( formation from the elements or the oxides, comparatively stableness of viing stage gatherings, blending in solid and liquids solutions ) either by direct reaction or through a thermchemical rhythm such as is involved.
Second application for the nose in the calorimeter is to spray the natural gas to fire it inside the burning chamber. The following figure show illustration for burner noses.
1-Fuel belongingss and the effects of sprays
Our fuel used in the calorimeter is the natural gas which takes the name of isooctane ( C2H6 ) and it has the following microstructure
Temperature
The temperature difference between the recess and the mercantile establishment of the nose besides impacting on the nozzle public presentation this achieved by when the temperature increased this straight set uping on the fuel belongingss specially in its viscousness so in the crude oil applications for the high viscousness sometimes used heating procedure for the fuel before way through the nose.
Surface Tension
The Surface tenseness in natural is the inclination of the surface of the liquid to undertaking with the smallest possible country. The consequence is usually similar to the tegument environing the organic structure of the liquid and drawing it into the form, which will hold the least sum of the surface country. That form is spherical form. Surface tenseness
Natural of flow
The natural of fluid flow through the nozzle consequence on its public presentation.for illustration in instance of laminar flow the public presentation of the nose will be better than in instance of turbulent flow.
In instance of found a caput it besides affect in the nozzle public presentation.
Cleaning Nozzles
In instance of utilizing fluids incorporating slatterns and other dusts it concentrated in the chief organic structure of the nose which affect on the nozzle way that cut down the flow rate through the nose which affect on its public presentation.
– Spray Forms
The Nozzles used for oil burners are provided in two different general types of spray forms, excavate cone and solid cone. These are illustrated in the below Figure. It will be noted in these illustrations that the hollow cone is a spray in which the concentration of droplets is at the outer border of the spray with small or no fuel in the centre of the spray versus the other type of sprays which leads to an failing in the public presentation of the nose.
Performance betterment
The efficiency of the nozzle depending on several factors it concentrated on

Type of sprayer and nose of design
The per centum of air to fuel ratio
Spark method from warmers to utilize the flicker ignition engineering.
Percentage of C on the fuel

So in the following subdivision we discuss these factors which it can impact on the nozzle public presentation
1- Flammability ( firing start )
The classical method for illuming the calorimeter is fiting it is non efficient so that we improve the nozzle public presentation from this side by utilizing the flicker ignition engineering.
This flicker ignition working depending on supplying it with fixed electromotive force from battery to be able acquire the initial flicker to get down the combustion procedure
* The flicker ignition which get the initial flicker to the instrument acquire its power connected by wire ( 3mm ) which connected besides to battery with 12 Vs.
2- Fuel to air ratio
In the theory of the stoichiometric mixture has merely plenty air to wholly fire burn the available fuel. In natural this is ne’er rather achieved, due chiefly to the really short clip available in the internal burning chamber for each burning rhythm. Most of this burning procedure completes in about 4-5 msecs. This is the clip that elapses from when the flicker is fired until the combustion procedure completed.
The Air fuel ratio is the most common mention term used for mixtures in internal burning engines
It is the ratio between the mass of air and the mass of fuel in the fuel-air mix at any given minute
For pure natural gas the stoichiometric mixture is about 14.7:1 or? of 1.00 precisely
3-to make a window from the top to see the fire from inside alternatively of opening the system each clip. We must utilize material Cleary to see out from it and work under force per unit area 10 saloon
{ m C_2H_6 } + frac { 7 } { 2 } { m O_2 } ightarrow 2 { m CO_2 } + 3 { m H_2O }
Equivalent ratio
The equality ratio of a system is defined as the ratio of the fuel-to-oxidizer ratio to the stoichiometric fuel-to-oxidizer ratio. Mathematically
phi = frac { mbox { fuel-to-oxidizer ratio } } { ( mbox { fuel-to-oxidizer ratio } ) _ { st } } = frac { m_ { fuel } /m_ { ox } } { ( m_ { fuel } /m_ { ox } ) _ { st } } = frac { n_ { fuel } /n_ { ox } } { ( n_ { fuel } /n_ { ox } ) _ { st } }
4-carbon per centum in the fuel
Natural gas is an highly of import beginning of energy for cut downing pollution and keeping a clean and healthy environment. In add-on to being a domestically abundant and unafraid beginning of energy, the usage of natural gas besides offers a figure of environmental benefits over other beginnings of energy, peculiarly other fossil fuels. This subdivision will discourse the environmental effects of natural gas, in footings of emanations every bit good as the environmental impact of the natural gas industry itself. Scroll down, or chink on the links below to be transported in front.
Decision
The study is an probe to depict the calorimeter procedure and the system operation with the nozzle public presentation and the method to better its public presentation. So the chief aims from the study are
To understand the basic rule of calorimeter and its necessity in technology to look into different types of calorimeters. The advantages and disadvantages utilizing these calorimeters in the technology lab environment.
Mentions
1- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pro-techsolutionsltd.com/PDF/flownozzle.pdf
2- www.EngineeringToolBox.com
3- www.flowmeterdirectory.co.uk/flowmeter_calorimetric.html
4- www.webersensorsinc.com/glossary.html
5- S. Sosin, C. Moldovan, R. Iosub ; Designing and fabrication of a calorimetric micro-sensor for methane sensing, CAS International Semiconductor Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 381 384.
6- www.bioline.org.br/pdf? se08021
7-R. Mohan Kumar, R. Muraliddharan, D. Rajan Babu, K. V. Rajendiran, R. Jayavel, D. Jayaraman, and P.Ramasamy, J. Cryst. Growth 229, 568 ( 2001 ) .
8-K. Meera, R. Muralidharan, R. Jeyavel, and P. Ramasamy, J. Cryst. Growth 263, 510 ( 2004 ) .

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