McDonaldization is an expression used to describe a society which resembles fast-food joint. It is the process in which a society shows characteristics of fast-food restaurant. It is concentrates on moving away from traditional thought to rational approach with the help of scientific management (Thussu, 1998). It is based on four primary components which are efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. In terms of McDonaldization, efficiency is the essential aspect of the organization which is used to manage time.
Calculability focuses on the quantity of work done by the workers of the organization. Predictability is the component which focuses on standardized and uniform services to be provided to the consumer. The last component is control which focuses on standardized and uniform workers. Hence, McDonaldization is the main ideology and philosophy of fast-food restaurants which are coming to control the American and international society. 2. How does MTV confirm but also reject the notion of McDonaldization? MTV deals with the wishes, dreams and hopes of teenagers and has become their center of discussion.
It is a culture in self having its own news, fashion and music programs which is influencing the entire generation of youth(Thussu, 1998). Although MTV has no link with consumerism, it is still linked with Mcdonaldization. It concentrates mainly on the youth of the country who are brainwashed with western concept of McDonaldization. It is considered to be a soft imperialism with the ambition of homogenizing the cultures of the world as it connects them through communications, information and entertainment. For example, MTV India promotes pop stars and singing sensations of India instead of Americans yet it maintains American presence.
MTV promotes local culture integrated with the concept of McDonaldization. 3. What is Hollywood hegemony? The ideology of Hollywood to produce entertainment is the underlying motive aimed to produce something which benefits the corporate interests. Hollywood is one of the institutions which support hegemony (Thussu, 1998). Hollywood movies can attract users from all over the world to get involved in emotional narratives which leave them to feel helpless and numb. The steady hegemony of Hollywood is considered to be a term used for the expansion of American market and becoming dominant throughout the world.
Hollywood is economically, institutionally and politically powerful which allows it to use its influence worldwide without any competition. Hollywood hegemony is the growth and expansion of its influence at a global level. 4. Why are there concerns about cultural diversity? Cultural diversity includes all the cultural dissimilarities and variation which exist between people based on language, dress, traditional and custom values, organization of society, their concept of ethics and religion (Thussu, 1998).
Since the entire world has productively adapted to different conditions, separate societies have surfaced on the globe. There are concerns about cultural diversity because international firms and companies are promoting consumer culture, urbanity, standardized services, products and values and exploitation of material needs and necessities (Thussu, 2009). Cultural diversity is negatively impacted by Americanization because local cultures are adopting American traditional values and customs. Consequently, the growing cultural contact is decreasing the traditional practices.
New global communities are emerging out. As globalization brings prosperity to human practices, homogenization has led to mono-culturalism. Americanization has negatively influenced the local cultures. 5. What is the future of `Global English`? The Mcdonaldization, Americanization and globalization of societies, the entire world is trying to adopt one language as medium of communication. Business domain, media, magazines, electronic media, etc have strong English language influence which shows that its use and study will persist on expanding.
In the coming future, it may be possible that global English will be challenged (Thussu, 1998). For instance, several multi-language communities will become more protective of their language even at the rapid spread and development of English. Topic 2 American Media and Local Cultures American media influences can be seen in various spheres of local cultures. The spread of American media includes television, movies and music which have been the basis of Americanization in local cultures after the end of world war two.
American media has generated a self-governing and independent culture which has severely influenced different cultures of the world. It has made an attempt to synchronize and integrate American customs and traditional values (Thussu, 1998). It has manipulated and influenced the youth of local cultures by showing only what it is allowed to do. The social impact of Americanization has been unconstructive and harmful as empirical studies have found out that American content of media has lead to propagation of cultural values of the American society.
It has increased drug abuse, alcohol abuse and violence against women as well promotion of unhealthy lifestyle (Thussu, 1998). Adolescent prefer to eat American junk food and soft drink rather than eating their traditional food. Medical professionals from the entire world are worried that American media can contribute to health problems in children and teenagers. Television programs such as The Simpsons, Desperate Housewives, NCIS, Ugly Betty, etc are the most popular television programs all over the world.
American singers such as Pink, Miley Cyrus, etc have become popular and local singers are being ignored. Simultaneously, American products are also preferred by consumers. We see local cultures preferring Starbucks coffee and eating junk food from McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, etc. I had visited Sweden last year. It was very surprising to seen American culture over there as I saw all the American television channels. They showed Fear Factor, Deal or no Deal, Apprentice, etc which have gained popularity in Sweden.
It was surprising to see that how the Swedish have been influenced by Americans in all aspects of daily life ranging from the way they talk to the way young Swedish people talked about going to McDonalds, Pizza hut, etc. Walking in a mall, I saw L’Oreal, Victoria’s Secret, Nike, Puma, McDonald’s, etc advertising their products. IN today’s time, young generation prefer living in big cities and want to live an independent life. Both husband and wife work and prefer living alone away from their in-laws.
The increasing globalization has increased the presence of American multinationals world-wide. American media is the dominant medium which has influenced all the cultures of the world. It is essential for other cultures to stop the spread of American cultural products worldwide. Young generations are copying American media willingly. It is becoming a disgrace that the youth are forgetting their national identity and are being influenced by the American media. Younger generation is becoming more active and prefers working in multinationals and is slowly changing the culture around the world.
Television is considered to be important tool for obtaining social values. The acquisition of American social values has increased violence and unhealthy lifestyle among teenagers. It has also increased the process of loneliness, depression and other mental problems in youth. References: Thussu, Daya Kishan,. (1998). Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. London: Arnold. Thussu, Daya Kishan. (2009). Why Internationalize Media Studies and How? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA